Purpose: We aimed to reveal the association between cognitive social capital and sexual awareness among high school students in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, where adolescent premarital sex is considered to be wide-spreading as consequence of socioeconomic changes, in comparison to our previous study in Hanoi, 2012. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire-based survey and a cross sectional study in late 2014, with 2051 eleventh graders at three high schools in Ho Chi Minh City. Complete data was received from 1935 respondents (94.3%). We assessed basic attributes, sexual knowledge, sexual awareness, sexual experience of peers, cognitive social capital such as a sense of community belonging, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem score. After the independent t-test and multiple logistic regression analyses on sexual awareness were performed assigning trivalent Rosenberg Self-Esteem score, sexual knowledge, and sexual experience of peers as independent variables (model 1), followed by analysis adjusted for cognitive social capital (model 2). This study was approved by Japanese Red Cross Akita College of Nursing (No. 24-003). Results: Of 1935 respondents, 99.9% were 16 or 17 years old and mostly from nuclear families (71.1%). Of all participants, 45.8% in males and 49.4% in females correctly answered on sexual knowledge, 47.6% of males and 28.3% of females accepted premarital sex, 60.0% of male and 65.0% of females knew peers with sexual intercourse experience, and 78.1% of males and 79.1% of females agreed with a sense of community belonging. When multiple logistic regression analyses performed, in model 1, sexual awareness was significantly associated with Rosenberg Self-Esteem score in female. In model 2, above association disappeared but significant association was found between sexual awareness and cognitive social capital in both sexes OR (95% CI), male 1.39 (1.05 - 1.84), female 1.99 (1.49 - 2.65). Discussion: The conservative traditional culture in both Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City seems to be similar to the concept of cognitive social capital and it is considered to have influenced sexual awareness of high school students in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Conclusion: Cognitive social capital is significantly associated with sexual awareness among high school students in urban areas of Vietnam.
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