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Portadilla de la sección: Informalidad globalizada (Calles de Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam)
Ospina ángela
Maguaré , 2010,
Abstract: Informalidad globalizada (calles de Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam) ángela Ospina, 2010. Archivo de la autora
Seroprevalence of Mycoplasma bovis Infection in Dairy Cows in Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam  [PDF]
Dung Van Nguyen, Chau Kim Thi Truong
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2015.55016
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the seroprevalence of M. bovis. A total of 606 serum samples were randomly collected from dairy cows in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Commercial ELISA kit was used for detection of antibody to M. bovis. The results indicated that overall seroprevalence was 80.2% (486/606). There were no significant differences between regions or age categories (P > 0.05). Degree of infection to M. bovis commonly distributed at positive degree 1 (68.5%) and 2 (24.1%). Seroprevalence at highest positive degree 4 were found in District 9, District 12 and Thu Duc (6.7%, 6.3% and 1.6%, respectively). This study is the first report of seroprevalence of M. bovis in Vietnam. The results suggested that M. bovis was spreading among dairy cow populations although degree of positivity was low. It should be considered as a high risk pathogen to dairy cows in Vietnam.
Performance of Clinical Algorithms for Smear-Negative Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Persons in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam  [PDF]
Duc T. M. Nguyen,Hung Q. Nguyen,R. Palmer Beasley,Charles E. Ford,Lu-Yu Hwang,Edward A. Graviss
Tuberculosis Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/360852
Abstract: Background. Tuberculosis (TB) disease diagnosis in Vietnam relies on symptom screening, chest radiography (CXR), and acid fast bacilli (AFB) sputum smear which have a poor sensitivity in HIV patients. We evaluated the performance of clinical algorithms in screening and diagnosing AFB smear-negative TB in HIV patients. Methods. We enrolled 399 HIV-positive patients seeking care at a HIV clinic in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Participants’ demographics, medical history, common TB symptoms, CXR, and laboratory tests were collected. Results. Of 399 HIV patients, 390 had initial AFB-negative smears and 22/390 patients had positive cultures. Symptom screening missed 54% (12/22) of smear-negative pulmonary TB (PTB) cases. Multivariate analysis found CD4+ cell level and CXR were significant PTB predictors. An algorithm combining four TB symptoms and TST presented a high sensitivity (100%), but poorly specific (24%) diagnostic performance for smear-negative PTB. Conclusion. Up to 54% of PTB cases in the HIV-infected population may be missed in the routine screening and diagnostic procedures used in Vietnam. Symptom screening was a poor overall diagnostic measure in detecting smear-negative TB in HIV patients. Our study results suggest that routine sputum cultures should be implemented to achieve a more accurate diagnosis of TB in HIV patients. 1. Introduction HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis (TB) coinfection may present with atypical manifestations of pulmonary TB (PTB) and a higher rate of negative sputum smears for acid fast bacilli (AFB) [1–3]. Though being less infectious than AFB smear-positive PTB, AFB smear-negative PTB is still a potentially important source of TB transmission and predicts a worse prognosis for HIV-infected patients [4–6]. Therefore, early and accurate diagnosis of sputum smear-negative PTB for HIV-infected patients is urgently important for not only improving the patient’s life expectancy, but also preventing disease transmission to the general population. The diagnosis of TB disease in developing countries like Vietnam relies mainly on symptom screening, chest radiography (CXR), and AFB sputum smear, which have a poor sensitivity in HIV-positive patients [3, 7]. Sputum culture is not routinely available for smear-negative patients, especially at district-level public health institutions [7]. Moreover, current data on the performance of clinical, radiographic, and laboratory characteristics in predicting AFB smear-negative PTB for HIV-infected patients are still limited and inconsistent [6, 8]. This reasoning led us to
Acceptance to Use Daily Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) as an HIV Prevention Method and Ability to Pay for PrEP among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam  [PDF]
Huong Thi Thu Phan, Nga Thi Thu Vu
Health (Health) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.99096
Abstract: Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV in Vietnam. Regardless of international and national agencies’ efforts, the HIV epidemic in MSM has been increasing in recent years. Novel and evidence-based HIV antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) maybe needed to combat the HIV epidemic among this population in Vietnam. This study aims to identify how MSM accept the use of PrEP as an HIV prevention method and their ability to pay for it. Method: This is a cross-sectional study of 373 MSM seeking HIV testing in a community-based HIV clinic in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam from January to April 2016. Potential participants were briefly informed about ethical considerations, screened for eligibility, and signed an informed consent form when selected. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by the clinic’s staff. Descriptive and analytical analysis was performed by STATA 13.0. Results: Of 373 participants, only 92 men (24.7%) reported having known about PrEP. Out of 360 men who were questioned about their acceptance of PrEP as an HIV prevention method, 274 (76.1%) embraced the use of PrEP. The median maximum affordable monthly PrEP cost was one million Vietnam Dong (VND) (equivalent to US$43) and the median average affordable monthly PrEP cost was 0.5 million VND (approximately $21.7). The majority of men (68.8%) could afford an average of less than $43 a month for PrEP. Conclusion: There is a relatively high level of PrEP acceptance among MSM in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. To increase PrEP acceptance, raising awareness and understanding of PrEP is recommended. To expand PrEP interventions in Vietnam, the target population’s ability to pay should be a key focus.
Backyard Living – Integrative Policies Towards Migrant Workers: Housing Microfinance in Greater Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam  [PDF]
Martin Noltze
ASEAS : ?sterreichische Zeitschrift für Südostasienwissenschaften , 2008,
Abstract: The urban agglomeration of the Vietnamese southeast industrial driving force Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) has become the most outstanding benefi ciary of the remarkable economic growth and foreign investments in the Vietnamese economy since the start of a comprehensive economic reform process in the mid 1980s. The notable development towards the foremost economic centre led to a high influx of migrant workers. In the course of an ongoing expansion process towards a megacity of tomorrow, the defi cient provision of adequate housing remains one of the most challenging problems of rural migrants in Greater HCMC. However, a future-oriented sustainable megacity concept is strongly dependent on the successful integration of migrants into the urban society. Within this context, the housing market is considered to be a key aspect of comprehensive urban planning. Hereby, housing microfinance (HMF) will be presented as an alternative housing finance scheme meeting the demand of a noteworthy number of poor and low-income people. Thereby HMF can do both: focus on specifi c needs of migrants with respect to their current life situation and enhance its outreach to a potential target group.
Association between physical activity and metabolic syndrome: a cross sectional survey in adolescents in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Trang HHD Nguyen, Hong K Tang, Patrick Kelly, Hidde P van der Ploeg, Michael J Dibley
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-141
Abstract: A cross-sectional assessment was conducted in 2007 on a representative sample of 693 high-school students from urban districts in Ho Chi Minh City. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria and physical activity was measured with Actigraph accelerometers. The association between physical activity and metabolic syndrome was assessed by using multiple logistic regression models.Overall 4.6% of the adolescents and 11.8% of the overweight/obese adolescents had metabolic syndrome. Elevated BP was the most common individual component of the metabolic syndrome (21.5%), followed by hypertriglyceridemia (11.1%). After adjusting for other study factors, the odds of metabolic syndrome among youth in the lowest physical activity group (<43 minutes of physical activity/day) were five times higher than those in the highest physical activity group (>103 minutes/day) (AOR = 5.3, 95% CI: 1.5, 19.1). Metabolic syndrome was also positively associated with socioeconomic status (AOR = 9.4, 95% CI: 2.1, 42.4).A more physically active lifestyle appears to be associated with a lower odds of metabolic syndrome in Vietnamese adolescents. Socio-economic status should be taken into account when planning interventions to prevent adolescent metabolic syndrome.Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors that includes glucose intolerance, hypertension, elevated triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, and obesity [1]. This clustering has been shown to occur not only in adults but also in adolescents [2-8].This syndrome continues to increase in both developed and developing countries, but has already become a major threat to global public health. It is especially of concern when it affects children and adolescents, as a consequence of increasing rates of childhood obesity and more sedentary lifestyles [9-11]. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents is relatively low (4%) when compared to the adult
Genetic and Antigenic Characterization of Enterovirus 71 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2011  [PDF]
Le Phan Kim Thoa, Pai-Shan Chiang, Truong Huu Khanh, Shu-Ting Luo, Tran Ngoc Hanh Dan, Ya-Fang Wang, Tang Chi Thuong, Wan-Yu Chung, Nguyen Thanh Hung, Jen-Ren Wang, Le Nguyen Thanh Nhan, Le Quoc Thinh, Ih-Jen Su, Than Duc Dung, Min-Shi Lee
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069895
Abstract: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) frequently causes fatal infections in young children in Asia. In 2011, EV71 epidemics occurred in southern Vietnam. We conducted genetic and antigenic analysis of the EV71 isolates and found that 94% of them were genotype C4a related to two lineages circulating in China and 6% were genotype C5 which have circulated in Vietnam since 2003. Antigenic variants were not detected. EV71 vaccines are being developed. Longitudinal enterovirus surveillance data are critical to formulate vaccination policy in Vietnam.
Willingness to Use the Internet to Seek Information on HIV Prevention and Care among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam  [PDF]
Pauline Justumus, Donn Colby, Thi Mai Doan Anh, Eric Balestre, Renaud Becquet, Joanna Orne-Gliemann
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071471
Abstract: Background In Vietnam, men who have sex with men (MSM) are highly affected by HIV and need new targeted HIV prevention strategies. Objectives To assess the willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care and associated factors among MSM in Ho Chi Minh City. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012. Participants were recruited using a convenience sampling method in venues most frequented by MSM and completed a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression models were performed to estimate factors associated with the willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. Results A total of 358 MSM were approached for the survey and 222 questionnaires (62.0%) were eligible for analyses. Overall, 76.1% of the respondents reported that they were willing to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. A number of male partners in last year less than or equal to 3 (Adjusted Odds Ratio: 3.07, 95% Confidence interval: 1.40–6.73), a history of STI screening (4.10, 1.02–16.48) and HIV testing (3.23, 1.20–8.64) and having ever sought a male sexual partner through the Internet (3.56, 1.55–8.18) were significantly positively associated with the willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. Conclusion The MSM interviewed in Ho Chi Minh City reported a high willingness to use the Internet to seek information on HIV prevention and care. In a context where new media are increasingly considered as promising options for reaching this HIV risk group, further research should be conducted on developing and testing tailored online tools adapted to the needs of Vietnamese MSM.
HIV Suppression among Patients on Treatment in Vietnam: A Review of HIV Viral Load Testing in a Public Urban Clinic in Ho Chi Minh City  [PDF]
T. Tony Trinh,Brian T. Montague,Timothy P. Flanigan,Hoang My Gerard
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/230953
Abstract: Background. There are few reports of HIV viral load (VL) testing among patients on ART in Vietnam. Methods. From a public clinic in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), we reviewed cases of VL measurements from adults on ART. Results. We identified 228 cases. Median age was 30 years (27–34), 85% were male, and 77% had a history of IDU. The mean ART duration was 26 months (95% CI 25–27); d4T/3TC/NVP was the most common regimen. Viral suppression was seen in 160/228 (70%). Viremia (>1000?copies/mL) was associated with prior ART exposure (OR 5.68, ) and immunologic failure (OR 4.69, ). Targeted testing accounted for 13% of cases, only half of which yielded viremia. Conclusion. We demonstrate a high HIV suppression rate among patients on ART in HCMC, Vietnam. In this setting, routine testing detects viremia missed by targeted testing. 1. Introduction Vietnam is a country with one of the highest prevalences of HIV in Southeast Asia. With an estimated prevalence of 293?000 people in 2007 (approximately 0.5% of the general population), the HIV epidemic is primarily concentrated in urban areas among key high-risk populations, the majority of which are injection drug users (IDU), and to a lesser extent, female sex workers (FSWs) and men who have sex with men (MSM) [1, 2]. Efforts to confront the HIV epidemic in Vietnam face a high burden of patients with comorbid substance abuse and limited resources. International efforts to scale up antiretroviral therapy (ART) have greatly improved funding for treatment in Vietnam, allowing for approximately 14?969 people to receive ART as of 2007 [3]. The success of ART programs has been documented in resource-limited settings throughout the world [4]. However, cohorts examining the effectiveness of ART programs in low-income countries traditionally consist of countries with a low prevalence of IDU, the majority of which are in Africa [5, 6]. Thus, there is less information regarding ART scale-up efforts in resource-limited settings with a high burden of comorbid IDU. Only since 2009 has the first report of ART among IDU in Vietnam been documented [7]. Virologic suppression is the measure of successful antiretroviral therapy. The cost of viral load monitoring, however, has been prohibitive in resource-limited settings.. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended an algorithm using clinical and immunologic criteria to assess treatment failure in the absence of viral load testing which has become standard of care in many resource-limited settings [8]. The concern has been raised that delayed recognition of treatment failure may
Early Pandemic Influenza (2009 H1N1) in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: A Clinical Virological and Epidemiological Analysis  [PDF]
Tran Tinh Hien equal contributor,Maciej F. Boni equal contributor ,Juliet E. Bryant equal contributor,Tran Thuy Ngan equal contributor,Marcel Wolbers,Tran Dang Nguyen,Nguyen Thanh Truong,Nguyen Thi Dung,Do Quang Ha,Vo Minh Hien,Tran Tan Thanh,Le Nguyen Truc Nhu,Le Thi Tam Uyen,Pham Thi Nhien,Nguyen Tran Chinh,Nguyen Van Vinh Chau,Jeremy Farrar,H. Rogier van Doorn equal contributor
PLOS Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000277
Abstract: Background To date, little is known about the initial spread and response to the 2009 pandemic of novel influenza A (“2009 H1N1”) in tropical countries. Here, we analyse the early progression of the epidemic from 26 May 2009 until the establishment of community transmission in the second half of July 2009 in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. In addition, we present detailed systematic viral clearance data on 292 isolated and treated patients and the first three cases of selection of resistant virus during treatment in Vietnam. Methods and Findings Data sources included all available health reports from the Ministry of Health and relevant health authorities as well as clinical and laboratory data from the first confirmed cases isolated at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in HCMC. Extensive reverse transcription (RT)-PCR diagnostics on serial samples, viral culture, neuraminidase-inhibition testing, and sequencing were performed on a subset of 2009 H1N1 confirmed cases. Virological (PCR status, shedding) and epidemiological (incidence, isolation, discharge) data were combined to reconstruct the initial outbreak and the establishment of community transmission. From 27 April to 24 July 2009, approximately 760,000 passengers who entered HCMC on international flights were screened at the airport by a body temperature scan and symptom questionnaire. Approximately 0.15% of incoming passengers were intercepted, 200 of whom tested positive for 2009 H1N1 by RT-PCR. An additional 121 out of 169 nontravelers tested positive after self-reporting or contact tracing. These 321 patients spent 79% of their PCR-positive days in isolation; 60% of PCR-positive days were spent treated and in isolation. Influenza-like illness was noted in 61% of patients and no patients experienced pneumonia or severe outcomes. Viral clearance times were similar among patient groups with differing time intervals from illness onset to treatment, with estimated median clearance times between 2.6 and 2.8 d post-treatment for illness-to-treatment intervals of 1–4 d, and 2.0 d (95% confidence interval 1.5–2.5) when treatment was started on the first day of illness. Conclusions The patients described here represent a cross-section of infected individuals that were identified by temperature screening and symptom questionnaires at the airport, as well as mildly symptomatic to moderately ill patients who self-reported to hospitals. Data are observational and, although they are suggestive, it is not possible to be certain whether the containment efforts delayed community transmission in Vietnam.
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