All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


Insights from Stakeholders of Five Residential Smart Grid Pilot Projects in the Netherlands

DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2016.71001, PP. 1-15

Keywords: Smart Grid, Strategic Niche Management, Products and Services, Stakeholders, Residential Areas, End-User

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

This paper presents insights and perceptions of stakeholders involved in the development and implementation of residential smart grid pilot projects in the Netherlands, adding to the limited information that is currently available in this area, while expectations about the potential benefits of smart grids are high. The main research questions of this study are: (1) How have some typical residential smart grid pilots in the Netherlands been set up? (2) Which stakeholders are involved in these pilots in the year 2014? (3) What are their views and perceptions with regards to the development and performance of residential smart grids? and (4) What do these stakeholders think about the products and services that may support an active participation of end-users in a smart energy home? To obtain information, we evaluated five residential smart grid pilot projects where smart energy products and services have been implemented. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine stakeholders involved in these projects. The Strategic Niche management framework was used to identify the present state of development and implementation of smart grid pilots. Our study shows that in the Netherlands residential smart grid pilots have been set-up and funded mainly by the government and grid operators. Other stakeholders involved include energy suppliers, end-users (as an energy cooperative or individual household), product and service suppliers, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) companies, and knowledge institutes. Currently a technology-push approach exists which barely includes an integrated approach towards smart grids products and services development. To the opinion of the interviewed stakeholders, current products and services offered in residential smart grid pilots are functionally attractive, but often too technically complex for the understanding of end-users. Hence, the general view held by respondents is that end-users should be the starting point in the development of smart grid products and services at the residential areas.

References

[1]  International Energy Agency (IEA) (2012) World Energy Outlook. IEA, Paris.
[2]  Nye, M., Whitmarsh, L. and Foxon, T. (2010) Socio Psychological Perspectives on the Active Roles of Domestic Actors in Transition to a Lower Carbon Electricity Economy. Environment and Planning A, 42, 697-714.
[3]  EnergieTrends (2014) A Publication of Netherlands Energy Research Center, Energie-Nederland and Netbeheer Nederland.
http://www.energietrends.info
[4]  International Energy Agency (IEA) (2011) Technology Roadmaps: Smart Grids. IEA, Paris.
[5]  Executive Office (2011) A Policy Framework for the 21st Century Grid: Enabling Our Secure Energy Future. Executive Office of the President of the United States, Washington DC.
[6]  Netherlands Ministry of Economic Affairs (2010) Op weg naar intelligent netten in Nederland. Discussion Document of the Task Force Smart Grids. The Hague. (In Dutch)
https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/documenten/rapporten/2011/05/20/
op-weg-naar-intelligente-netten-in-nederland
[7]  Giordano, V., Gangale, F., Fulli, G. and Sánchez Jiménez, M. (2011) Smart Grid Projects in Europe: Lessons Learned and Current Developments. Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Institute for Energy, Petten.
[8]  Gangale, F., Mengolini, A. and Onyeji, I. (2013) Consumer Engagement: An Insight from Smart Grid Projects in Europe. Energy Policy, 60, 621-628.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.05.031
[9]  European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (2014) Smart Grids Project Outlook. European Union.
[10]  Netbeheer Nederland (2014).
http://www.netbeheernederland.nl/smartgrids/
[11]  Fang, X., Misra, S., Xue, G. and Yang, D. (2012) Smart Grid—The New and Improved Power Grid: A Survey. Article in IEEE Communications and AMP Tutorials.
[12]  Geelen, D., Reinders, A. and Keyson, D. (2013) Empowering the End-User in Smart Grids: Recommendations for the Design of Products and Services. Energy Policy, 61, 151-161.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.05.107
[13]  Gungor, V.C., Sahin, D., Kocak, T., Ergüt, S., Buccella, C., Cecati, C. and Hancke, G.P. (2012) Smart Grids and Smart Homes: Key Players and Pilot Projects. IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, 6, 18-34.
[14]  Schot, J.W. and Geels, F.W. (2008) Strategic Niche Management and Sustainable Innovation Journeys: Theory, Findings, Research Agenda, and Policy. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, 20, 537-554.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09537320802292651
[15]  Hoogma, R., Kemp, R., Schot, J.W. and Truffer, B. (2002) Experimenting for Sustainable Transport. The Approach of Strategic Niche Management. Spon Press, New York.
[16]  Van der Laak, W.W.M., Raven, R.P.J.M. and Verbong, G.P.J. (2007) Strategic Niche Management for Biofuels: Analysing Past Experiments for Developing New Biofuels Policies. Energy Policy, 35, 3213-3225.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2006.11.009
[17]  Kemp, R., Schot, J. and Hoogma, R. (1998) Regime Shifts to Sustainability through Processes of Niche Formation. The Approach of Strategic Niche Management. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, 10, 175-196.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09537329808524310
[18]  Geels, F.W. and Schot, J. (2010) Managing Sustainable Innovation Journeys. In: Grin, J., Rotmans, J. and Schot, J., Eds., Transitions to Sustainable Development. New Directions in the Study of Long Term Transformative Change, Routledge, New York, 80-92.
[19]  Raven, R.P.J.M. (2005) Strategic Niche Management for Biomass. PhD Thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven.
[20]  Kemp, R., Rip, A. and Schot, J. (2001) Constructing Transition Paths through the Management of Niches. In: Garud, R. and Karnoe, P., Eds., Path Dependence and Creation, Lawrence Erlbaum, London, 269-299.
[21]  Elzen, B., Geels, F.W. and Green, K. (Eds.) (2004) System Innovation and the Transition to Sustainability: Theory, Evidence and Policy. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.
[22]  Coenen, L., Raven, R. and Verbong, G. (2010) Local Niche Experimentation in Energy Transitions: A Theoretical and Empirical Exploration of Proximity Advantages and Disadvantages. Technology in Society, 32, 295-302.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2010.10.006
[23]  Verbong, G.P.J., Beemsterboer, S. and Sengers, F. (2012) Smart Grids or Smart Users? Involving Users in Developing a Low Carbon Electricity Economy. Energy Policy, 52, 117-125.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2012.05.003
[24]  Bliek, F., van den Noort, A., Roossien, B., Kamphuis, R., de Wit, J., van der Velde, J. and Eijgelaar, M. (2010) PowerMatching City, a Living Lab Smart Grid Demonstration. 2010 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe (ISGT Europe), Gothenburg, 11-13 October 2010, 1-8.
[25]  Geelen, D., Scheepens, A., Kobus, C.B.A., Obinna, U., Mugge, R., Schoormans, J.P.L. and Reinders, A. (2013) Smart Energy Households’ Field Tests in The Netherlands with a Design-Driven Approach. 4th European Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT) Conference, Lyngby, 6-9 October 2013, 1-5.
[26]  Netherlands Ministry of Economic Affairs (2013) PowerMatching City II. https://www.rvo.nl/sites/default/files/2013/09/PowerMatching%20City%20II.pdf
[27]  Netherlands Ministry of Economic Affairs (2013) Your Energy Moment: Smart Grids with the Consumers. https://www.rvo.nl/sites/default/files/2013/09/Jouw%20Energie%20Moment.pdf
[28]  Utrecht Sustainability Institute, 2014.
http://www.usi.nl/projecten/energie/smart-grid-rendement-voor-iedereen-2/
[29]  Netherlands Ministry of Economic Affairs (2013) Cloud Power Texel.
https://www.rvo.nl/sites/default/files/Cloud%20Power%20Texel.pdf
[30]  TexelEnergie, 2015.
http://www.texelenergie.nl/texel-slim-zelfvoorzienend/67/
[31]  Netherlands Ministry of Economic Affairs (2013) Smart Grids in Sustainable Lochem.
https://www.rvo.nl/sites/default/files/2013/09/Intelligent%20net%20in%20duurzaam%20
Lochem%20UK.pdf
[32]  Kumar, R. (2014) Research Methodology: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners. 4th Edition, Sage Publications, London.
[33]  Kobus, C.B.A., Mugge, R. and Schoormans, J.P.L. (2012) Washing When the Sun Is Shining: How Users Interact with a Household Energy Management System. Ergonomics, 56, 451-462.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2012.721522
[34]  Chappells, H. (2003) Re-Conceptualizing Electricity and Water: Institutions, Infrastructures and the Construction of Demand. Lancaster University, Lancaster.
[35]  Sauter, R. and Watson, J. (2007) Strategies for the Deployment of Microgeneration: Implications for Social Acceptance. Energy Policy, 35, 2770-2779.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2006.12.006
[36]  Van Vliet, B., Chappells, H. and Shove, E. (2005) Infrastructures of Consumption: Environmental Innovation in the Utility Industries. Earthscan, London.
[37]  Geelen, D., Vos Vlammings, M., Filippidou, F., Van den Noort, A., Van Grootel, M., Moll, H., Reinders, A. and Keyson, D. (2013) An End-User Perspective on Smart Home Energy Systems in the PowerMatching City Demonstration Project. 4th IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT Europe), Lyngby, 6-9 October 2013, 1-5.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/isgteurope.2013.6695387
[38]  Stern, P.C. (2014) Individual and Household Interactions with Energy Systems: Toward Integrated Understanding. Energy Research and Social Science, 1, 41-48.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2014.03.003
[39]  Wever, R., van Kuijk, J. and Boks, C. (2008) User-Centred Design for Sustainable Behaviour. International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 1, 9-20.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus