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Usage of "smart" glass panels in commercial and residential buildings  [PDF]
Gavrilovi? Dragan J.,Stoji? Jasmina
Facta Universitatis Series : Architecture and Civil Engineering , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/fuace1102261g
Abstract: This paper examines specific conceptual approach to the implementation of new "smart" materials having phase-changing own characteristics and maximum potential for their installation and exploitation of their performance in the commercial and residential buildings architecture. Such approach somewhat changes the usual traditional practice of installing "classical" materials, i.e. installable components into the architectural structure. The immeasurably superior performance of new elements installed in the architectural system is thus utilized, to the total energy benefit of the structural system. Using new "smart" components would result in energy cost-effective impact, reflected in the reduced the overall energy consumption of a given structure as well as in better effect sustainability of buildings in bioclimatic terms at the micro and macro levels in comparisonto the usual performance of traditionally constructed buildings.
Intelligent Load Management Scheme for a Residential Community in Smart Grids Network Using Fair Emergency Demand Response Programs  [PDF]
Muhammad Ali, Z.A. Zaidi, Qamar Zia, Kamal Haider, Amjad Ullah, Muhammad Asif
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2012.45044
Abstract: In the framework of liberalized deregulated electricity market, dynamic competitive environment exists between wholesale and retail dealers for energy supplying and management. Smart Grids topology in form of energy management has forced power supplying agencies to become globally competitive. Demand Response (DR) Programs in context with smart energy network have influenced prosumers and consumers towards it. In this paper Fair Emergency Demand Response Program (FEDRP) is integrated for managing the loads intelligently by using the platform of Smart Grids for Residential Setup. The paper also provides detailed modelling and analysis of respective demands of residential consumers in relation with economic load model for FEDRP. Due to increased customer’s partaking in this program the load on the utility is reduced and managed intelligently during emergency hours by providing fair and attractive incentives to residential clients, thus shifting peak load to off peak hours. The numerical and graphical results are matched for intelligent load management scenario.
FEDRP Based Model Implementation of Intelligent Energy Management Scheme for a Residential Community in Smart Grids Network  [PDF]
Qamar Zia, Muhammad Ali, Zulfikar Ahmad Zaidi, Chaudhry Arshad, Amjad Ullah, Hafeez ur Rahman, Muhammad Ahsan Shahzad, Beenish Taj
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2012.34045
Abstract: In the framework of liberalized deregulated electricity market, dynamic competitive environment exists between wholesale and retail dealers for energy supplying and management. Smart Grids topology in form of energy management has forced power supplying agencies to become globally competitive. Demand Response (DR) Programs in context with smart energy network have influenced prosumers and consumers towards it. In this paper Fair Emergency Demand Response Program (FEDRP) is integrated for managing the loads intelligently by using the platform of Smart Grids for Residential Setup. The paper also provides detailed modeling and analysis of respective demands of residential consumers in relation with economic load model for FEDRP. Due to increased customer’s partaking in this program the load on the utility is reduced and managed intelligently during emergency hours by providing fair and attractive incentives to residential clients, thus shifting peak load to off peak hours. The numerical and graphical results are matched for intelligent energy management scenario.
A landscape of projects – the changing context of town planning practice in the Netherlands  [PDF]
Arnold Reijndorp
Urbani Izziv , 1997,
Abstract: Recently a map was presented on which all the 2650 town planning projects in the Netherlands are shown that will be realized before the year 2005 or short ly after. In this contribution the focus is on changes in the con text of the profession of the urban planner as witnessed on the New map. This will give a more clear view on the changing demands from the profession and the education of urban planners are confronted with.
Building envelope innovation: smart facades for non residential buildings  [cached]
Marco Sala,Rosa Romano
Techne : Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment , 2011,
Abstract: The research analyzes the evolution of smart fa ade systems in the area of design and industrial production, in order to investigate the technological, functional and qualitative standards of dynamic fa ade and evaluate the energy performance of the building envelope as a dynamic system that interacts between indoor and outdoor environment. The study focused on dynamic envelopes for office building analyzing the evolution of fa ade systems in terms of: building construction, innovative systems, smart materials, dynamic system. Aiming to improve building energy performances. The research, developed during the PhD thesis “Smart Envelope - dynamic and innovative technologies for energy saving” and the research “Abitare Mediterraneo”, aims to identify and define the energy performances of smart envelopes trough the analysis of the state of art, related to dynamic building envelope of double skin fa ade, and the development of a new dynamic fa ade system.
Impact of Scheduling Flexibility on Demand Profile Flatness and User Inconvenience in Residential Smart Grid System  [PDF]
Naveed Ul Hassan,Muhammad Adeel Pasha,Chau Yuen,Shisheng Huang,Xiumin Wang
Energies , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/en6126608
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to study the impact of scheduling flexibility on both demand profile flatness and user inconvenience in residential smart grid systems. Temporal variations in energy consumption by end users result in peaks and troughs in the aggregated demand profile. In a residential smart grid, some of these peaks and troughs can be eliminated through appropriate load balancing algorithms. However, load balancing requires user participation by allowing the grid to re-schedule some of their loads. In general, more scheduling flexibility can result in more demand profile flatness, however the resulting inconvenience to users would also increase. In this paper, our objective is to help the grid determine an appropriate amount of scheduling flexibility that it should demand from users, based on which, proper incentives can be designed. We consider three different types of scheduling flexibility (delay, advance scheduling and flexible re-scheduling) in flexible loads and develop both optimal and sub-optimal scheduling algorithms. We discuss their implementation in centralized and distributed manners. We also identify the existence of a saturation point. Beyond this saturation point, any increase in scheduling flexibility does not significantly affect the flatness of the demand profile while user inconvenience continues to increase. Moreover, full participation of all the households is not required since increasing user participation only marginally increases demand profile flatness.
Estimating the Benefits of Electric Vehicle Smart Charging at Non-Residential Locations: A Data-Driven Approach  [PDF]
Emre Can Kara,Jason S. Macdonald,Douglas Black,Mario Berges,Gabriela Hug,Sila Kiliccote
Computer Science , 2015, DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.05.072
Abstract: In this paper, we use data collected from over 2000 non-residential electric vehicle supply equipments (EVSEs) located in Northern California for the year of 2013 to estimate the potential benefits of smart electric vehicle (EV) charging. We develop a smart charging framework to identify the benefits of non-residential EV charging to the load aggregators and the distribution grid. Using this extensive dataset, we aim to improve upon past studies focusing on the benefits of smart EV charging by relaxing the assumptions made in these studies regarding: (i) driving patterns, driver behavior and driver types; (ii) the scalability of a limited number of simulated vehicles to represent different load aggregation points in the power system with different customer characteristics; and (iii) the charging profile of EVs. First, we study the benefits of EV aggregations behind-the-meter, where a time-of-use pricing schema is used to understand the benefits to the owner when EV aggregations shift load from high cost periods to lower cost periods. For the year of 2013, we show a reduction of up to 24.8% in the monthly bill is possible. Then, following a similar aggregation strategy, we show that EV aggregations decrease their contribution to the system peak load by approximately 40% when charging is controlled within arrival and departure times. Our results also show that it could be expected to shift approximately 0.25kWh (~2.8%) of energy per non-residential EV charging session from peak periods (12PM-6PM) to off-peak periods (after 6PM) in Northern California for the year of 2013.
A Unified Residential Energy Cost Optimization Model for Smart Grid - Significance and Challenge  [PDF]
Muhammad Raisul Alam,Marc St-Hilaire,Thomas Kunz
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: This article addresses the residential energy cost optimization problem in smart grid. To date, most of the previous research only consider a partial aspect of the cost optimization problem. As a result, they fail to analyze scenarios when the interconnected components along with their properties have to be considered simultaneously. The proposed model combines these partial models into a single unified cost optimization model. Therefore, it is able to analyze scenarios which are closer to practical implementation. Furthermore, it is useful to analyze the behavior of a population (e.g., smart buildings, smart cities, etc.) and properties of the components for specific scenarios (e.g., the impact of aggregate storage capacity, etc.). It allows energy trading in microgrid which introduces a cost fairness problem. It ensures Pareto optimality among the households which guarantees that no household will be worse off to improve the cost of others. Results show that it can maintain the user preferences and can react to a demand response program by rescheduling the household loads and sources. Finally, the paper addresses the challenge of the computational complexity of the proposed model, showing that solution time increases exponentially with the problem size and proposes possible approaches to solve this.
Customer Engagement Plans for Peak Load Reduction in Residential Smart Grids  [PDF]
Naveed Ul Hassan,Yawar Ismail Khalid,Chau Yuen,Wayes Tushar
Computer Science , 2015,
Abstract: In this paper, we propose and study the effectiveness of customer engagement plans that clearly specify the amount of intervention in customer's load settings by the grid operator for peak load reduction. We suggest two different types of plans, including Constant Deviation Plans (CDPs) and Proportional Deviation Plans (PDPs). We define an adjustable reference temperature for both CDPs and PDPs to limit the output temperature of each thermostat load and to control the number of devices eligible to participate in Demand Response Program (DRP). We model thermostat loads as power throttling devices and design algorithms to evaluate the impact of power throttling states and plan parameters on peak load reduction. Based on the simulation results, we recommend PDPs to the customers of a residential community with variable thermostat set point preferences, while CDPs are suitable for customers with similar thermostat set point preferences. If thermostat loads have multiple power throttling states, customer engagement plans with less temperature deviations from thermostat set points are recommended. Contrary to classical ON/OFF control, higher temperature deviations are required to achieve similar amount of peak load reduction. Several other interesting tradeoffs and useful guidelines for designing mutually beneficial incentives for both the grid operator and customers can also be identified.
An Efficient Impedance Matching Technique for Improving Narrowband Power Line Communication in Residential Smart Grids
SNEHASIS DESPANDE, I. V. PRASANNA, S K PANDA
International Journal of Advanced Research in Electrical, Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering , 2013,
Abstract: Power line communication is a cost-effective, facile and reliable tool for the current electrical distribution grid and will play a significant role towards realizing smart grids in future. Low voltage electrical networks provide a harsh environment for data communication. Significant attenuation, noise, interferences, multipath reflections and overall unpredictable and time varying access impedance are some of the major problems faced by power line communication in its current state. The demand for smart greenhouses is rapidly increasing to meet the energy demand in future. So the need of an effective communication link between main grid and the residential grid is inevitable. This paper aims at removing one of the big hindrances in achieving power line communication, which is impedance mismatch between the communication system side and load side. Although there are many impedance matching techniques, a thorough comparison of all major techniques is required to find out which one is technically efficient and cost effective. It explains the performance variation in different system areas and therefore helps in providing better perceptive of power line communication in real applications.
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