We examined whether colonization of selected oral pathogens is associated with gastric precancerous lesions in a cross-sectional study. A total of 119 participants were included, of which 37 were cases of chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, or dysplasia. An oral examination was performed to measure periodontal indices. Plaque and saliva samples were tested with real-time quantitative PCR for DNA levels of pathogens related to periodontal disease (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythensis, Treponema denticola, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans) and dental caries (Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus). There were no consistent associations between DNA levels of selected bacterial species and gastric precancerous lesions, although an elevated but non-significant odds ratio (OR) for gastric precancerous lesions was observed in relation to increasing colonization of A. actinomycetemcomitans (OR = 1.36 for one standard deviation increase, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.87–2.12), P. gingivalis (OR = 1.12, 0.67–1.88) and T. denticola (OR = 1.34, 0.83–2.12) measured in plaque. To assess the influence of specific long-term infection, stratified analyses by levels of periodontal indices were conducted. A. actinomycetemcomitans was significantly associated with gastric precancerous lesions (OR = 2.51, 1.13–5.56) among those with ≥ median of percent tooth sites with PD≥3 mm, compared with no association among those below the median (OR = 0.86, 0.43–1.72). A significantly stronger relationship was observed between the cumulative bacterial burden score of periodontal disease-related pathogens and gastric precancerous lesions among those with higher versus lower levels of periodontal disease indices (p-values for interactions: 0.03–0.06). Among individuals with periodontal disease, high levels of colonization of periodontal pathogens are associated with an increased risk of gastric precancerous lesions.
Lauren P (1965) The two histological main types of gastric carcinoma: diffise and so-called intestinal-type carcinoma. An attempt at a histo-clinical classification. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand 64: 31–49.
Farinati F, Cardin R, Libera GD, Rugge M, Herszènyi L, et al. (1995) Determinants for the development of chronic atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia in the stomach. Eur J Cancer Prev 4: 181–186.
Kato I, Vivas J, Plummer M, Lopez G, Peraza S, et al. (2004) Environmental factors in Helicobacter pylori-related gastric precancerous lesions in Venezuela. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13: 468–476.
Peleteiro B, Lunet N, Figueiredo C, Carneiro F, David L, et al. (2007) Smoking, Helicobacter pylori virulence, and type of intestinal metaplasia in Portuguese males. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16: 322–326.
Abnet CC, Kamangar F, Dawsey SM, Stolzenberg-Solomon RZ, Albanes D, et al. (2005) Tooth loss is associated with increased risk of gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma in a cohort of Finnish smokers. Scand J Gastroenterol 40: 681–687.
Kigure T, Saito A, Seida K, Yamada S, Ishihara K, et al. (1995) Distribution of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Treponema denticola in human subgingival plaque at different periodontal pocket depths examined by immunohistochemical methods. J Periodontal Res 30: 332–341.
Blaser MJ, Perez-Perez GI, Kleanthous H, Cover TL, Peek RM, et al. (1995) Infection with Helicobacter pylori strains possessing cagA is associated with an increased risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Cancer Res 55: 2111–2115.
Dixon MF, Genta RM, Yardley JH, Correa P (1996) Classification and grading of gastritis. The updated Sydney System. International Workshop on the Histopathology of Gastritis, Houston 1994. Am J Surg Pathol 20: 1161–1181.
National Institute of Dental Research (1987) Epidemiology and Oral Disease Prevention Program. Oral health of United States adults: the National Survey of Oral Health in U.S. Employed Adults and Seniors, 1985–1986: national findings. Bethesda, Md.: U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Service, National Institutes of Health.
Li Y, Saxena D, Barnes VM, Trivedi HM, Ge Y, et al. (2006) Polymerase chain reaction-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis in the evaluation of oral microbiota. Oral Microbiol Immunol 21: 333–339.
Psoter WJ, Ge Y, Russell SL, Chen Z, Katz RV, et al. (2011) PCR detection of Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in dental plaque samples from Haitian adolescents. Clin Oral Investig 15: 461–469.
Zadeh HH, Nichols FC, Miyasaki KT (1999) The role of the cell-mediated immune response to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontitis. Periodontol 2000 20: 239–288.