Since the fog of London of 1952, in which more than 4000 people were killed in 4 days, the combined efforts of the scientists of several disciplines of disciplines, including those of environmental health, private clinics and biomedical, serious concerns concerning the impact of the pollutants of the air raised on human health. These environmental pollutants quickly are identified as important and independent factors of risk for several diseases such as respiratory affections, the cancer of lung, the atherosclerosis, the cardiovascular diseases and the disturbances of the blood parameters. In our study one was interested in the harmful action of the atmospheric pollutants on the human organism particularly on the blood parameters. Annaba, capital industrial of the Algerian east is subjected since many years to the aggressiveness of a polluted environment, in particular with the dust of dismissed complex of steel. An experimental research on rabbits (Europeus) exposed to these dust was considered. Samples of blood are taken after 3, 7 and 21 days daily exposure to 2 g of dust collected of the steel complex for a hematological study. The results of the studied parameters show a reduction in the hematocrit and haemoglobin, a disturbed evolution of the lymphocytes and leucocytes an increase in number of blood plates and a smear presenting of red blood corpuscles with a roughcast membrane.