All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

PLOS ONE  2012 

The Genetic and Environmental Foundation of the Simple View of Reading in Chinese

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047872

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


The Simple View of Reading (SVR) in Chinese was examined in a genetically sensitive design. A total of 270 pairs of Chinese twins (190 pairs of monozygotic twins and 80 pairs of same-sex dizygotic twins) were tested on Chinese vocabulary and word reading at the mean age 7.8 years and reading comprehension of sentences and passages one year later. Results of behavior-genetic analyses showed that both vocabulary and word reading had significant independent genetic influences on reading comprehension, and the two factors together accounted for most but not all of the genetic influences on reading comprehension. In addition, sentence comprehension had a stronger genetic correlation with word reading while passage comprehension showed a trend of stronger genetic overlap with vocabulary. These findings suggest that the genetic foundation of the SVR in Chinese is largely supported in that language comprehension and decoding are two core skills for reading comprehension in nonalphabetic as well as alphabetic written languages.


[1]  Gough PB, Tunmer WE (1986) Decoding, reading, and reading disability. REM SPEC EDUC 7(1): 6–10.
[2]  Aaron PG, Joshi M, Williams KA (1999) Not all reading disabilities are alike. J LEARN DISABIL-US 32(2): 120–137.
[3]  Catts HW, Hogan TP, Adlof SM (2005) Developmental changes in reading and reading disabilities. In: Catts H, Kamhi A, editors. The connections between language and reading disabilities. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
[4]  Catts HW, Hogan TP, Fey ME (2003) Sub-grouping poor readers on the basis of individual differences in reading-related abilities. J LEARN DISABIL-US 36(2): 151–164.
[5]  Nation K, Norbury CF (2005) Why reading comprehension fails: Insights from developmental disorders. TOP LANG DISORD 25(1): 21–32.
[6]  Leach JM, Scarborough HS, Rescorla L (2003) Late-emerging reading disabilities. J EDUC PSYCHOL 95(2): 211–224.
[7]  Oakhill JV, Cain K, Bryant PE (2003) The dissociation of word reading and text comprehension: Evidence from component skills. LANG COGNITIVE PROC 18(4): 443–468.
[8]  Kirby JR, Savage RS (2008) Can the simple view deal with the complexities of reading? LITERACY 42(2): 75–82.
[9]  Betjemann RS, Keenan JM, Olson RK, DeFries JC (2011) Choice of reading comprehension test influences the outcomes of genetic analyses. SCI STU READ 15(4): 363–382.
[10]  White B, Kirby JR (2007) Depth of processing: Its relation to reading comprehension, component skills and cognitive processes. Poster presented at the annual conference of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, Prague, Czech Republic.
[11]  Keenan JM, Betjemann RS, Wadsworth SJ, DeFries JC, Olson RK (2006) Genetic and environmental influences on reading and listening comprehension. J RES READ 29(1): 75–91.
[12]  Harlaar N, Cutting L, Deater-Deckard K, DeThorne LS, Justice LM, et al. (2010) Predicting individual differences in reading comprehension: A twin study. ANN DYSLEXIA 60: 265–288.
[13]  Byrne B, Samuelsson S, Wadsworth S, Hulslander J, Corley R, et al. (2007) Longitudinal twin study of early literacy development: Preschool through Grade 1. READ WRIT 20: 77–102.
[14]  Byrne B, Coventry WL, Olson RK, Samuelsson S, Corley R, et al. (2009) Genetic and environmental influences on aspects of literacy and language in early childhood: Continuity and change from preschool to Grade 2. J NEUROLINGUIST 22: 219–236.
[15]  Olson RK, Keenan JM, Byrne B, Samuelsson S, Coventry WL, et al. (2011) Genetic and environmental influences on vocabulary and reading development. SCI STU READ 15(1): 26–46.
[16]  Curtis ME (1980) Development of components of reading skill. J EDUC PSYCHOL 72(5): 656–669.
[17]  Hoover WA, Tunmer WE (1993) The components of reading. In: Thompson GB, Tunmer WE, Nicholson T, editors. Reading acquisition processes. Adelaide, South Australia: Multilingual Matters.
[18]  Sticht T, James J (1984) Listening and reading. In: Pearson P, editor. Handbook of research on reading. New York: Longmans.
[19]  Keenan JM, Olson RK, Betjemann RS (2009) Assessment and etiology of individual differences in reading comprehension. In: Wagner RK, Schatschneider C, Phythian-Sence C, editors. Beyond decoding: The behavioral and biological foundations of reading comprehension. New York: Guilford.
[20]  Gernsbacher MA (1990) Language comprehension as structure building. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
[21]  Harlaar N, Hayiou-Thomas ME, Dale PS, Plomin R (2008) Why do preschool language abilities correlate with later reading? A twin study. J SPEECH LANG HEAR RES 51(3): 688–705.
[22]  Hayiou-Thomas ME, Harlaar N, Dale PS, Plomin R (2006) Genetic and environmental prediction from different aspects of preschool language and non-verbal ability to 7-year reading. J RES READ 29(1): 50–74.
[23]  Keenan JM, Betjemann RS, Olson RK (2008) Reading comprehension tests vary in the skills they assess: Differential dependence on decoding and oral comprehension. SCI STU READ 12(3): 281–300.
[24]  Hoosain R (1991) Psycholinguistic implications for linguistic relativity: A case study of Chinese. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
[25]  Chow BWY, Ho CSH, Wong SWL, Waye M, Bishop DVM (2011) Genetic and environmental influences on Chinese language and reading abilities. PLoS ONE 6(2): e16640 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016640.
[26]  Shu H, McBride-Chang C, Wu S, Liu H (2006) Understanding Chinese developmental dyslexia: Morphological awareness as a core cognitive construct. J EDUC PSYCHOL 98(1): 122–133.
[27]  Yeung PS, Ho CSH, Chik PPM, Lo LY, Luan H, et al. (2011) Reading and spelling Chinese among beginning readers: What skills make a difference? SCI STU READ 15(4): 285–313.
[28]  Chik PPM, Ho CSH, Yeung PS, Wong YK, Chan D, et al. (2012) Contribution of discourse and morphosyntax skills to reading comprehension in Chinese dyslexic and typically developing children. ANN DYSLEXIA 62: 1–18.
[29]  Yeung PS, Ho CSH, Chan D, Chung KK, Wong YK (under review) A Model of Reading Comprehension among Chinese Elementary School Children.
[30]  Hoover WA, Gough PB (1990) The simple view of reading. READ WRIT 2: 127–160.
[31]  Imaizumi Y (2003) A comparative study of zygotic twinning and triplet rates in eight countries, 1972–1999. J BIOSOC SCI 35(2): 287–302.
[32]  Chia KS, Lee JJM, Cheung P, Cheung KH, Seielstad M, et al. (2004) Twin births in Singapore: A population-based study using the national birth registry. ANN ACAD MED SINGAP 33(2): 195–199.
[33]  Rven JC, Court JH, Raven J (1995) Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices. UK: Oxford Psychologists Press.
[34]  Dunn LM, Dunn DM (2007) Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test –4th Edition. Minneapolis, MN: Pearson Assessments.
[35]  Ho CSH, Chan DW, Tsang SM, Lee SH (2000) The Hong Kong Test of Specific Learning Difficulties in Reading and Writing. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Specific Learning Difficulties Research Team.
[36]  Boker S, Neale M, Maes H, Wilde M, Spiegel M, et al. (2011) OpenMx: An open source extended Structural Equation Modeling framework. PSYCHOMETRIKA 76(2): 306–317.


comments powered by Disqus