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Evaluation of the Simple View of Reading in an EFL Context: An Additive or Product Model?  [cached]
Atefeh Ghaedsharafi,Mortaza Yamini
International Journal of English Linguistics , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ijel.v1n2p196
Abstract: This study attempted to find the relationship among decoding skill (DS), reading comprehension (RC) and listening comprehension (LC) in an EFL context to evaluate Gough and Tunmer's (1986) Simple View of Reading (SVR) in which Reading Comprehension = Decoding × Listening Comprehension. To this end, 85 female students studying English as a foreign language (EFL) at a Language Institute in Shiraz were asked to participate in the study. The sample was homogenous with regard to their English level. Through a multiple-choice cloze test, multiple-choice listening test and a word and non-word reading assessment, RC, LC and DS were measured respectively. To find out if reading comprehension equals DS × LC, correlation analysis and simple linear regression analysis were used. The results supported the validity of the simple view of reading
CODE AND COMPREHENSION IN WRITTEN LANGUAGE – CONSIDERING LIMITATIONS TO THE SIMPLE VIEW OF READING
PER HENNING UPPSTAD,ODDNY JUDITH SOLHEIM
L1 Educational Studies in Language and Literature , 2012,
Abstract: The Simple View of Reading (SVR) was introduced by Gough and Tunmer in 1986 as a model to predict reading comprehension by means of two factors: decoding and linguistic comprehension. Over time, the SVR has acquired the status of a definition of reading, and it counts as a starting point for both research and teaching programmes for reading. In the present manuscript an attempt is made to maintain Gough and Tunmer’s (1986) original purpose of the SVR by discussing potential problems that arise when the SVR is applied beyond its original intention. This is done by means of a critical look at some core assumptions of the SVR. The basic argument put forward is that the SVR – with its two factors for prediction – provides teachers with no understanding of how reading develops in a society dominated by texts. The article presents some perspectives on how a focus shift in the use of the SVR could be brought about rather than claiming to provide a new, consistent framework.
Exploring the Utility of the Simple View of Reading in Irish Children Attending Schools in Areas Designated as Socially Disadvantaged  [cached]
Rena Lyons,Allyn Fives,Noreen Kearns,John Canavan
Journal of Education and Training Studies , 2013, DOI: 10.11114/jets.v1i1.107
Abstract: Evidence suggests that children living in areas designated as socially disadvantaged may be at risk for literacy difficulties. The Simple View of Reading (Gough & Tunmer, 1986; Hoover &Gough, 1986) is a theoretical model that sets out to describe the processes that children need to develop to become proficient readers, that is word recognition or decoding processes and language comprehension processes. The overall aim of this study was to investigate the utility of the Simple View of Reading in a cohort of Irish children attending schools designated as socially disadvantaged. The objectives were twofold. The first objective was to investigate predictors of reading accuracy, spelling and reading comprehension skills in this sample. The second objective was to investigate whether or not these predictors varied with age. The sample comprised fifty-nine children attending two schools. Inclusion criteria were: children between the ages of 5-8 years; a sample of children within three ranges of reading abilities as rated by their teachers (teachers were asked to rate the children’s reading ability as above average, average or below average); and a minimum score of 80 on the British Picture Vocabulary Scales (BPVS) (Dunn et al., 1997) to be included. Reading accuracy (single word reading and passage reading), reading comprehension, and spelling were measured using three standardised tests i.e., Weschler Individual Attainment Test 11UK, Teachers Version (WIAT, 11UK-T) (Weschler, 2006), the York Assessment of Reading for Comprehension (YARC) (Snowling et al., 2009), and the Single Word Spelling Test (SWST), (Sacre & Masterson, 2000). Potential predictors of literacy skills, such as phonemic awareness and phonic knowledge skills, were measured using criterion-referenced tests. Vocabulary was also a potential predictor and was measured using the BPVS. There was mixed evidence for the Simple View of Reading. While phonic knowledge, phonemic knowledge and non-word reading were predictors of reading, other factors such as vocabulary were also predictors. Although vocabulary was a predictor of reading comprehension for the total sample, the picture was less clear when the effect of age was explored. To conclude, there was mixed evidence to support the Simple View of Reading. Nonetheless, the findings were encouraging in that children were acquiring literacy skills.
Genetic and Environmental Influences on Chinese Language and Reading Abilities  [PDF]
Bonnie Wing-Yin Chow,Connie Suk-Han Ho,Simpson Wai-Lap Wong,Mary M. Y. Waye,Dorothy V. M. Bishop
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016640
Abstract: This study investigated the etiology of individual differences in Chinese language and reading skills in 312 typically developing Chinese twin pairs aged from 3 to 11 years (228 pairs of monozygotic twins and 84 pairs of dizygotic twins; 166 male pairs and 146 female pairs). Children were individually given tasks of Chinese word reading, receptive vocabulary, phonological memory, tone awareness, syllable and rhyme awareness, rapid automatized naming, morphological awareness and orthographic skills, and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices. All analyses controlled for the effects of age. There were moderate to substantial genetic influences on word reading, tone awareness, phonological memory, morphological awareness and rapid automatized naming (estimates ranged from .42 to .73), while shared environment exerted moderate to strong effects on receptive vocabulary, syllable and rhyme awareness and orthographic skills (estimates ranged from .35 to .63). Results were largely unchanged when scores were adjusted for nonverbal reasoning as well as age. Findings of this study are mostly similar to those found for English, a language with very different characteristics, and suggest the universality of genetic and environmental influences across languages.
Fields of View for Environmental Radioactivity  [PDF]
Alex Malins,Masahiko Okumura,Masahiko Machida,Hiroshi Takemiya,Kimiaki Saito
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: The gamma component of air radiation dose rates is a function of the amount and spread of radioactive nuclides in the environment. These radionuclides can be natural or anthropogenic in origin. The field of view describes the area of radionuclides on, or below, the ground that is responsible for determining the air dose rate, and hence correspondingly the external radiation exposure. This work describes Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations for the field of view under a variety of situations. Presented first are results for natural 40K and thorium and uranium series radionuclides distributed homogeneously within the ground. Results are then described for atmospheric radioactive caesium fallout, such as from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Various stages of fallout evolution are considered through the depth distribution of 134Cs and 137Cs in soil. The fields of view for the natural radionuclides and radiocaesium are different. This can affect the responses of radiation monitors to these nuclides if the detector is partially shielded from the ground within its field of view. The field of view also sets the maximum reduction in air dose rates that can be achieved through local decontamination or remediation measures. This maximum efficiency can be determined quickly from the data presented here for the air dose rate versus the spatial extent of radioactive source on the ground.
A GENERAL VIEW TO THE READING COMPREHENSION STRATEGIES  [PDF]
Dr. Cevdet EP?A?AN
Journal of International Social Research , 2009,
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to give information about reading comprehension strategies, where it has been proved that these strategies help reading comprehension. For this purpose, both domestic and foreign master and doctorate studies and other theoretical sources about reading comprehension and reading comprehension strategies have been tried to be reached as much as possible. The reached sources have been investigated and it is decided that the reading comprehension strategies can be divided into four main titles. The strategies named as ‘reading comprehension strategies during research’ have been divided into subtitles as; before reading strategies, during reading strategies, after reading strategies and strategies during whole reading. Then, during whole reading process, the total reading comprehension strategies studied in one or more than one lecture have been explained in different titles and it has been tried to explain general and discriminative properties of these strategies.
Making Sense of Chinese Reading: Yi and Xing  [PDF]
Shomei Wang, Ken Goodman
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2014.45054
Abstract: Research and theory in reading have tended to focus on English and other alphabetic languages. Even if non-alphabetic languages are the focus of reading research, they are primarily studied from a perspective of alphabetic languages. There is little attempt to build research on analysis of the Chinese writing system. This article reports research that is based on a thorough analysis of the Chinese writing system, which has a continuous 2000-year history of use and rivals alphabetic systems in the number of users, world-wide. The research uses miscue analysis in the study of events in oral reading where the observed response to a complete authentic text differs from the expected response. The analysis of the Chinese writing system is provided in the article. This description was the base for a major contribution of the study, the Taxonomy of Chinese Miscues adapted from the Taxonomy of Oral Reading Miscues (Goodman, 1973). The article also places Chinese literacy in its cultural context. The finding that Chinese readers make miscues in similar proportions to readers of alphabetic orthographies is itself important because it shows that Chinese reading is a process of meaning construction and much more than the sequential recognition of characters. Chinese reading employs the same psycholinguistic strategies and use of cues from the text as reading in alphabetic languages. Twelve fourth semester students of Chinese read a complete authentic Chinese text. The resulting data provide a baseline of data for further study of Chinese reading since it avoids the imposition of inappropriate units of alphabetic orthographies such as words, sentences and phonic correspondences. Data from L1 readers are offered for comparison. Goodman’s transactional model and theory of reading, writing, and written texts (1994, 1996, 2003), which views reading as primarily the construction of meaning, is thus shown to be applicable to reading Chinese. Chinese readers use the structure of Chinese characters in semantic and syntactic context to make sense of print with little use of phonics. This finding is consistent with the Chinese historical and cultural view that the writing system (meaning; essence; spirit; interior) is the essential part of the whole semiotic system. In contrast to , xíng (forms; formats; outer) is merely a surface whose form represents what lies within. In Chinese society, reading is not only to construct the of written texts, but also to construct the of a culture. By means of constructing , the function
A Rewriting View of Simple Typing  [PDF]
Aaron Stump,Garrin Kimmell,Hans Zantema,Ruba El Haj Omar
Computer Science , 2012, DOI: 10.2168/LMCS-9(1:4)2013
Abstract: This paper shows how a recently developed view of typing as small-step abstract reduction, due to Kuan, MacQueen, and Findler, can be used to recast the development of simple type theory from a rewriting perspective. We show how standard meta-theoretic results can be proved in a completely new way, using the rewriting view of simple typing. These meta-theoretic results include standard type preservation and progress properties for simply typed lambda calculus, as well as generalized versions where typing is taken to include both abstract and concrete reduction. We show how automated analysis tools developed in the term-rewriting community can be used to help automate the proofs for this meta-theory. Finally, we show how to adapt a standard proof of normalization of simply typed lambda calculus, for the rewriting approach to typing.
Classroom assessment of reading comprehension: How are preservice Foundation Phase teachers being prepared?  [cached]
Carisma Nel
Per Linguam : A Journal of Language Learning , 2012, DOI: 10.5785/27-2-107
Abstract: A number of assessment studies in recent years have shown that the educational achievement of learners in South African schools is unacceptably poor. The Department of Education’s systemic evaluations, conducted in Grade 3 (first cycle in 2001, second cycle in 2007) show very low levels of literacy among learners. Reading comprehension and writing scores averaged 39% for the first and 36% for the second cycle. Research indicates that less attention has been given to children’s reading comprehension skills compared to decoding skills. Teacher preparation programmes should provide candidates with a rigorous, research-based curriculum and opportunities to practise a range of predefined skills and knowledge. The demands of competent literacy instruction and assessment, and the training experiences necessary to learn it, have been seriously underestimated by universities. Teacher education programmes should ensure that teachers, amongst other crucial aspects, know how to assess the progress of every student and change instruction when it is not working and also know how to communicate results of assessments to various stakeholders, especially parents. The purpose of this article is to report on the training that pre-service teachers receive, related to reading comprehension assessment practices, within a BEd foundation phase teacher preparation programme.
Environmental Problems in Malaysia: A View of Contractors` Perception  [PDF]
Rawshan Ara Begum,Joy Jacqueline Pereira
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: The aim of this study is to highlight contractors` perception on various environmental problems and examine relative importance of each environmental problem as part of an overall construction waste management and environmental strategy for developing appropriate policies in Malaysia. The data in this study is based on contractors registered with construction industry development board (CIDB) of Malaysia and analysed by using mean score model. The findings revealed that contractors are concerned about all components of the environment and perceived the most important environmental problems which are deforestation, water pollution, air pollution and ground water contamination as well as soil erosion. In response to these problems, government and other stakeholders should implement various actions and measures to alleviate environmental problems. In addition, contractors and developers also need to be included environmental protection measures in their construction projects.
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