introduction: the objective of present study was to describe the neurodevelopment during the first 2 years of life of the first cuban newborns underwent high frequency ventilation (hfv) in oscillatory modality. methods: a longitudinal and descriptive study was conducted in 19 newborns treated with hfv and the final assessment of neurodevelopment was related to some perinatal variables and to the ventilation type. results: there were neonates (21%) presenting with neurodevelopment alterations. course was normal in all those weighing less than 2000 g at birth, and in the 40% of the series weighing 2500 or more. there were alterations in the 13% of pre-term neonates and in the 50% of at-term births, as well as a slight predominance of normality in male sex (82% versus 75%). there was only one patient with a low and a sustained apgar score from the 4 with sequelae. neurodevelopment course was normal in 89% of those underwent to high frequency ventilation during 8 hours or more; in 30% we found alterations from those underwent to ventilation during less than 48 hours. almost all the neonates underwent to ventilation during more than 96 hours, including those presenting sequelae. conclusions: the fifth part of newborns underwent high frequency ventilation had neurodevelopment sequelae during the first 2 years of life with a predominance of the moderate ones. this ventilation modality by itself was not associated with a higher sequelae incidence, which were more frequent in neonates with higher weight and gestational age. with less time in high frequency and a total higher time in ventilation therapy, greater was the incidence of neurodevelopment alterations.