OALib Journal
 OALib Journal is an all-in-one open access journal (ISSN Print: 2333-9721, ISSN Online: 2333-9705). It accepts a manuscript for the peer review process, typesetting, and publication, allocated to one of the 322 subject areas. The article processing charge for publishing in OALib journal is Only $99. Submit now
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Aug 28, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Affective Disorders and Antidepressant Drugs

Marc Fakhoury

Affective disorders are a group of psychiatric diseases that can affect an individual at any given age. Also called mood disorders, they can be distinguished into two different types: major depressive disorder, also called major depression, and bipolar disorder, which is known as manic depression. People affected by major depression most often have a low mood, and are consistently in a state of unhappiness. Although it was shown that genetics play a role...



Aug 28, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Role of Vaidyas and Ayurveda and Its Impact on Human Health

Shaifali Goyal, Rajni Negi, Prabhakar Semwal, Rahul Vikram Singh

Nowadays medicine is an essential part of daily life and it was also used in traditional life style. There are a huge number of pharmaceutical products available in the market at the present time. Among them 80% of all such pharmaceutical products derived from plant source. In the developing country viz. India, Africa, Sri Lanka, Nepal, etc. 70% of the world population are directly and indirectly depending on herbal drugs and products. Although advanced ...



Aug 28, 2014Open    AccessArticle

PAM (Pregnancy Associated Malaria), Related Problems and Its Effective Treatments

Somia Gul, Tahira Khan, Shagufta Naz, Tayyaba Khan

Malaria is one of the leading causes of death and disease worldwide, especially in the developing world. Malaria which is transmitted by anopheles mosquitoes is a preventable and treatable infectious disease. It kills more than one million people each year, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa and other endemic areas. We have conducted a survey in different maternity homes to check the rate of occurrence of malaria during pregnancy and its complications in pregn...



Aug 27, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Biodegradation of Petroleum Compound Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa

K. V. Darsa, A. Joseph Thatheyus

The present study was conducted to determine the biodegradation of petrol by Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from petrol contaminated soil. The isolated strain was able to grow in minimal broth along with 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% concentrations of petrol which indicated the capability of the organism in degrading petrol and utilizing it as a source for growth. The isolated strain’s efficiency was determined by analyzing the parameters pH, optical de...



Aug 27, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Fundamentals, Representative Applications and Future Perspectives of Green Chemistry: A Short Review

Kalyan Kumar Rana, Suparna Rana

Green chemistry is an eco-friendly and rapid emerging field of chemistry which offers a green alternative to conventional chemistry practices. It focuses on the reduction, recycling and removal of the use of toxic and hazardous chemicals through innovative alternative routes making desired products with minimum environment impact. Its growing importance is in exploitation of maximum possible resources in such a way that, there is minimum production of un...



Aug 27, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Forearm Bone Mineral Density of Normal Indian Population

Ravichandran Rajan, Kannan Subramanian

Background and Objectives: Bone density measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) recognized now as a safe and accurate technique[1] is being done frequently. But the T- score and Z-score values are interpreted using the reference value of Asian population provided by the manufacturer and not of Indian population. This may lead to improper diagnosis of Osteoporosis in Indian population. In this...



Aug 27, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Inhibitors and Their Intra-Relationships Influencing the Adoption of Stabilised Earth Construction to Alleviate the Urban Housing Crisis in Zimbabwe

Mohammad Sharif Zami

Stabilised earth is an alternative building material which is comparatively cheaper than conventional building material in Zimbabwe. However, there are inhibitors which make it unpopular amongst the Zimbabwean construction professionals and general population, though it has a high potential to alleviate the urban housing crisis. This paper aims to identify and highlight these inhibitors and refines them through a series of in-depth interviews. First, a c...



Aug 26, 2014Open    AccessArticle

The Difference of Mental Skills in Superior Basketball Players and Gymnasts with Different Levels of Experience

Mohammad Maleki, Sardar Mohammadi, Ali Nazarian

This study aimed to compare mental skills between superior basketball players and gymnasts. Subjects included 161 basketball players (91 experienced: aged 22.47 ± 2.27, and 70 inexperienced, aged 23.13 ± 2.2) and 114 gymnasts (66 experienced; aged 22.77 ± 2.03 and 48 inexperienced, aged 22.79 ± 2.25). The questionnaire used for this study was OMSAT-3 that assessed mental skills in three main categories of foundation mental skills,...



Aug 26, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Parametric Dependence of Coordination Number Obtained Using Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey and Overbeek DLVO Pair Interaction Potential for Ordered Macroions Suspended into Water

Rakesh Kumar Pandey

Coordination numbers have been calculated for the ordered structures prevailing in aqueous sus- pension of macroions for its different governing parameters viz. sizes, charges, impurity ion concentrations and temperatures by integration of region r2g(r) in the limit 0 - rmin around the main peak in g(r)-r curve in order to examine the effects of controlling parameters on th...



Aug 26, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Stronger Self-Focusing of Hermite-Cosh-Gaussian (HChG) Laser Beam in Plasma

Niti Kant, Vikas Nanda

The relativistic self-focusing of HChG beam in the plasma has been investigated theoretically using WKB and paraxial ray approximation for mode indices 0, 1 and 2 for different values of pulse amplitude, normalized plasma density and decentred parameter. The plot between beam width parameter f and the normalized length ξ for different value of normalized density has been reported and indicates the enhancement of the self-focusing phenomena of the laser b...



Aug 26, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Effect of Simultaneous Emotions and Driving Tasks on Driver’s Change Blindness

Yanqun Yang, Xinyi Zheng, Said Easa, Qian Zhang, Aixiu Hu, Yu Liang

Change blindness is an important phenomenon where a driver may skip some information in the driving scene due to its rapidly changing and dynamic character. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of simultaneous emotions and driving tasks on change blindness. Twenty college students with driving licenses were taken as the study subjects. The experimental program involved two types of emotions combined with four driving tasks. Showing 10 minut...



Aug 25, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Polytropic Bulk Viscous Cosmological Model with Variable G and Λ

R. K. Tiwari, Mukesh Sharma, Sonia Sharma

We consider a Bianchi type-I Polytropic bulk viscous fluid cosmological model with variable G and Λ. To get a deterministic model, it is assumed thatand , ...



Aug 25, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Genetic Parameter Estimates for Growth and Reproductive Trait of Sheep for Genetic Improvement and Designing Breeding Program in Ethiopia: A Review

Shigdaf Mekuriaw, Aynalem Haile

Small ruminants in general and sheep in particular are important investments in the highlands of Ethiopia. Genetic and environmental improvements offer an opportunity to increase production from existing animal resources. Development of effective genetic evaluation and improvement programs requires knowledge of the genetic parameters (genetic variance of each trait and covariance among traits) for economically important production traits. Direct heritabi...



Aug 25, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Bi-Factorial Interactive Effects of Osmotic Potential and Lead on the Content of Na, K and Pb2+ Ions in Three Cultivars of Triticumaestivum L.

K. A. Farghali, Afnan S. A. Quronfulah
This investigation was carried out on three cultivars of Triticumaestivum L. namely: Sakha93, Giza168 and Jizan baladi. The Plants were grown in hydroponic solution and treated by ion-deficient cultures under different osmotic water potential levels and Pb concentrations. The results indicated that, the Na content was low in roots of Sakha93 and Giza168 shoot, while the high Na content was observed in Giza168 root and Jizan baladi shoot. The K content was higher in Giza168 plants than in the ...


Aug 22, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Teaching of English in Indian Schools through Grammar Translation Method―Low Performance―A Field Study

Preeti Grover

Teaching and learning of English language as a second language has become a major concern in the present time for all persons who use English in their daily routine and also for the learner’s emotional, intellectual, cognitive and social development. Teaching English as a foreign language refers to teaching English to those students whose first language is not English. So far as teaching of English language in our Indian schools (Govt. Schools) is concer...



Aug 21, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Understanding the Nature of the Presumption of Resulting Trusts

Xueping Chen
The nature of the presumption of a resulting trust has generated a controversy, which has created two schools of thoughts. Both schools of thoughts claim that resulting trusts give effect to the presumed intention, positive or negative. But in this paper, I take on a quite different view of point that whether a lack of intent to benefit or a positive intent to create a trust is not related with the presumption of the resulting trusts, which, I believe, will make it interesting to general readers...


Aug 20, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Study of the Effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Mechanical Properties of Polyvinyl Alcohol Based Gelatin Blend Film

Kamol Dey, Sumon Ganguli, Sushanta Ghoshal, Mubarak A. Khan, Ruhul A. Khan

Blend film of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based gelatin was prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of both samples. The mixed aqueous solutions of both samples in different ratios (P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5) were then cast onto silicon paper covered glass plate to form film. These films were then irradiated under gamma radiation (60Co) with different intensities (total dose) like 50, 100, 150, 250 and 500 krad to investigate the irradiation effect on the mechanical proper...



Aug 19, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Effect of Acid, Base and Time on Different Brands of Glimepiride

Safila Naveed, Hina Qamar, Wardha Jawaid, Urooj Bokhari

The objective of this study is to develop the degradation studies of different brands of glimepiride available in market. Forced degradation is a powerful tool used routinely in pharmaceutical development in order to develop stability-indicating methods that lead to quality stability data and to understand the degradation pathways of the drug substances and drugs. Glimepiride is a medium- to long-acting sulfonylurea antidiabetic drug as it is the most prescribed oral antih...



Aug 18, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Breast Cancer Survival in Mongolian Women

D. Angarmurun, B. Batzorig, L. Undram, D. Gantuya, O. Chimedsuren, D. Avirmed

Cancer is becoming an important cause of mortality in developing country year by year. During last 10 years 5% of all cancer cases in Mongolian women were accounted for breast cancer. The aim of our study was to determine survival in women with breast cancer in Mongolia. The data of morbidity and mortality on breast cancer were collected retrospectively and were used to analyze stages of the cancer and survival from the time of di...



Aug 15, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Alcohol and Breast Cancer Incidence and Outcome: A Minireview of Literature

Rizwan Qamar, Mashhood A. Syed, Jonatahn Yin Amtul R. Carmichael

There is strong epidemiological evidence, based on 15 prospective studies, 10 meta-analyses, and 5 systematic reviews involving more than 2.2 million patients, that alcohol consumption is a contributing factor for the development of breast cancer. The evidence regarding the effect of alcohol consumption on breast cancer outcome needs to be gathered in order to draw firm conclusions regarding alcohol consumption after breast cancer diagnosis. In this article, we aim to revi...



Aug 14, 2014Open    AccessArticle

A Search for Factors that Predict the Efficacy of Viscosupplementation in Knee Osteoarthritis

R. Michelle Koolaee, H. Ralph Schumacher, Michael Shoemaker, Sarah Mooar, Sally Pullman-Mooar

Objective: Previous research demonstrates inconsistent effects of hyaluronate (HA) viscosupplementation on patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors that predict clinical response to a single intra-articular injection of Hylan GF-20. Methods: This was an observational study of 55 patients with knee OA, scheduled to receive intra-articular injections of Hylan GF-20. These patients met the institution’s guide...



Aug 13, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Behavior of Platinum Group during Their Pyrometallurgical Recovery from Spent Automotive Catalysts

Georgios Kolliopoulos, Efthymios Balomenos, Ioanna Giannopoulou, Iakovos Yakoumis, Dimitrios Panias

The behavior of platinum group metals (PGMs) during their recovery with smelting of spent automotive ceramic catalysts powder in the presence of metallic copper at elevated temperatures is studied in this paper. Two different metal recovery mechanisms proved to be active in this process: 1) Wetting of micro-dispersed particulates of PGMs in the slag by molten copper, formation of copper droplets with attracted microparticles of PGMs and settling of the m...



Aug 12, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Kinetics of Direct Reduction Titanomagnetite Briquette Produced from Rossetta-Ilmenite via Hydrogen

Naglaa Ahmed El-Hussiny, Atef El-Amir, Saied Thabet Abdel-Rahim, Khaled El hossiny, Mohamed El-Menshawi Hussein Shalabi

Reduction kinetics of titanomagnetite concentrate briquettes produced from Rossetta-llmenite ore via 1.5 liter/min hydrogen flow rate were investigated at different temperatures ranging from 600℃ to 950℃. It was found that the best reduction properties were found at 950℃, so the kinetic models shown by the briquettes at this temperature maybe: Diffusion control or Diffusion through ash layer (crank-cins...



Aug 11, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Application Photocatalysis for Treatment of Industrial Waste Water—A Short Review

Ranjana Das

Occurrence of persistent organic compounds in industrial effluents and their efficient removal technique has emerged as a crucial problem to waste water treatment plants. This review aims to focus on the plight associated with the effluents from textile industry, agricultural and pharmaceutical effluents. The occurrence of dyes, pesticides and endocrine disrupting chemicals in aquatic ecosystems may cause chronic diseases, affect the human endocrine syst...



Aug 08, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Preparation and Fire Test of Intumescent Powder Coatings

Heinrich Horacek

New regulations for hazardous air pollutants drove operations to compliant coatings. Powder coatings were the most popular choice. A screening of intumescent powder coatings was carried out comprising binders like thermoplastics as plasticised polyvinylchloride and polypropylene as well as non-cross linked thermosets as polyurethanes. Intumescence was achieved by addition of the intumescent ingredient bicyclopentaerythritol phosphate, by the intumescent ...



Aug 07, 2014Open    AccessArticle

On the Pre-Exponential Factor Comparing in Thermoluminescence (TL) Theory

Eugenio Chiaravalle, Michele Mangiacotti, Claudio Furetta, Giuliana Marchesani, Michele Tomaiulo

The aim of the work has two folders: the first is to apply numerical and approximated methods to solve the integral comparing in the thermoluminescence theory, i.e. . The second point is to compare the influence of the two different ways of calculation on the values of the pre- exponential factor. 



Aug 06, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Performance Evaluation of Rotational Interleaver for IDMA Scheme in Acoustic Environment

Prachi Tripathi, Shivani Dixit, M. Shukla

The whole globe is covered universally by water with a majority space. In view of extraction of minerals as well as national security reasons, underwater communication has become quite important for all the mankind. Researchers, around the world are working for optimizing the multiple scheme in acoustic channel. Recently, the researchers have reported valuable employability of IDMA scheme in acoustic communica...



Aug 06, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Scalp Reconstruction Using Integra, an Alternative to Free Tissue Transfer—Case Report

Victoria Fung, Richard L. Chalmers, Jenny L. C. Geh
We present a case of scalp reconstruction using Integra® and split skin grafting after extensive excision of melanoma in a previously irradiated field. Radical resection of malignancy and application of Integra®, a dermal substitute, was performed. Following histological confirmation of complete excision, a split-thickness skin graft (SSG) was applied. After 14 months the patient remains fully healed and without recurrence. The 2-stage use of Integra®...


Aug 05, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Evaluation of IL-6 and IL-8 in Tear Fluid of Sulfur Mustard Gas-Exposed Patients with Eye Lesions

Reza Haji Hosseini

The levels of IL-6, 8 in tear fluids of people exposed to mustard gas in the war between Iraq and Iran with chronic dry-eye symptoms were studied. 25 of the patients who were effected with mus- tard gas and had chronic dry eye symptoms were compared to control group; consisting of 25 people who had common chronic dry eye symptoms with blepharitis and 25 healthy people as normal group. The levels of IL-6 and IL...



Aug 04, 2014Open    AccessArticle

A Defective Democracy: The Case of the United States

John Dreijmanis
According to the six criteria of Wolfgang Merkel and Auriel Croissant to distinguish various political systems, the United States is a defective democracy, with increasing socio-economic inequality.


Aug 01, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Polymer Inclusion Membrane (PIM) as Competitive Material for Applications in SPE for Water Treatment Process

Ounissa Senhadji-Kebiche, Taous Belaid, Mohamed Benamor
The elaboration of a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) and solvent impregnated resin (SIR) XAD7 with sorptive characteristics intended for removal of heavy metals was investigated. Bis (2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) monothiophosphinic acid (Cyanex 302) was used as an acidic extractant. The sorption of Zn(II), Cu(II) and Fe(II) ions onto the PIM and SIR was investigated and optimized as a function of contact time, pH, extractant amount and concentration of metal ions. Both the PIM and the SIR showed reas...


Jul 31, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Wear Properties of Hot Extruded Aluminum Powder Compacts

Mohammed Y. Abdellah, M. Mahmoud Moustafa, Ashraf T. Mohamed, G. T. Abdel-Jaber

Aluminum powder compacts have low wear resistance due to the reduction in ductility. The ductility enhances using the metalwork technology like the hot extrusion process. The wear test is done using pin on disc machine for all hot extruded aluminum compacted specimen reinforced with 1, 2, 3, and 4 copper wires, and extruded at 450℃. The load is applied by dead weights (1600 gm) at 4 variable linear velocities of 0.628, 0.942, 1.25 and 1.57 m/sec at ...



Jul 31, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Vegetable Farm Types and Hydromorphic Soil Properties in Ojo Area of Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria

Fatai Olakunle Ogundeel, Maria Claire Folami

Vegetable cultivation is practiced in cities around the world as urban agriculture aimed at meeting the food and vegetable demand of the urban population. However, like every other human activity it has the potential to cause damage to soil health leading to poor productivity and large environmental impacts. Previous studies on the impact of vegetable cultivation on soil nutrients status have focus...



Jul 31, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Application of Discrimination Filter Based on the Polarization to the Surface Wave Records

Nilgun Sayil

As well known, each type of seismic waves has a specific particle motion. The basic surface waves Love and Rayleigh show the particle motions polarized linearly in the transversal-horizontal plane and elliptically in the vertical-radial plane, respectively. Like in the body waves, polarization properties can be used to design the surface wave discrimination filter. The process consists of weighting the amplitudes of vertical (Z), radial (R)...



Jul 31, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Prevalence of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Ouagadougou (Burkina-Faso)

Rayangnewinde Donald Auguste Yanogo, Yempabou Sagna, Hervé Tieno, Oumar Guira, Youssouf Joseph Drabo

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a pathological condition whose worldwide prevalence is growing, particularly in Africa, contrasting with an inadequacy of screening and diagnosis. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of this ailment in an urban environment of Burkina-Faso, as well as the prevalence of cardiovascular comorbid risk factors, such as arterial hypertension and obesity. Patients and methods: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional st...



Jul 30, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Enucleation Followed by Open Packing of Iodoform Gauze in Mandibular Unicystic Ameloblastoma: A Case Report

Vijay Kumar, Raman Kant Sinha

Unicystic ameloblastoma is a clinical subtype of ameloblastoma. According to Ackermann there are three types of unicystic ameloblastoma microscopically. Luminal unicystic ameloblastoma belongs to the Ackermann type-1 unicystic ameloblastoma. They frequently affect young people and may behave aggressively. A general agreement has been made for aggressive type of unicystic ameloblastomas are managed aggressively to eradicate the lesions completely by radic...



Jul 30, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Negatively Charged Oxygen Ions as a Plasma Diagnostic Tool: Application to Comets

Sreekala Gopinathan, Sijo Sebastian, Noble Abraham, Savithri Devi, Venugopal Chandu, Renuka Gangadharan
We study the stability of the ion-acoustic (IA) wave in a collisional plasma composed of hydrogen, positively and negatively charged oxygen ions, electrons and neutral atoms. This composition approximates very well the plasma environment around a comet. A solution of the dispersion relation yields a frequency for the IA wave at around the hydrogen plasma frequency. The growth/ damping rate is sensitively dependent on the ring parameters u⊥s (the ring speed) an...


Jul 29, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Simulation and Comparative Analysis of SS-LMS & RLS Algorithms for Electronic Dispersion Compensation

Gurpreet Kaur, Gurmeet Kaur

In this paper electronic feed forward equalization is performed to mitigate the link chromatic dispersion. The equalizer coefficients are computed by a decision-directed process based on the sign-sign least mean square and the recursive least square algorithm. Therefore, this paper evaluates the performance of these algorithms in chromatic dispersion compensation at bit rate of 10 Gb/s. This paper compares these two adaptation algorithms for receiver based on analogue elec...



Jul 29, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Test Site/In-Situ Data for Earth Observation in Case of Limited Field Data Access

Rustam B. Rustamov, Sabina N. Hasanova

Remote sensing (RS) is the method making possible of observing, recording and collecting of objects or features on the Earth from distant places. There is no direct contact with the investigated objects. It is reflecting radiation scattering from the Earth surface content information in the form of wavelengths in different range of spectrum. Main source of the information comes from satellites forming as space image. A further step of the analyses of spa...



Jul 28, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Activity Limitation in the Elderly People and Inequalities in Brazil

André Luiz Barbosa de Lima, Kenio Costa de Lima
Functional status decline in elderly individuals can compromise home life and lead to social isolation. Therefore, we aimed to determine the influence of income inequality on the limitation of activities among elderly people in Brazil. The present study included 18,484 individuals aged 60 years old or more from data of the Health Supplement of the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD), conducted in 2008. Random effects ordinal regression was proposed for multilevel analysis of the Global Activ...


Jul 28, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Comparative Study between Metformin and Laparoscopic Ovarian Drilling for Ovulation Induction, Achievement of Pregnancy and Live Birth in Asian Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Prospective Trial

Samsad Jahan, Samira Humaira Habib, Md. Sakandar Hyet Khan, Akter Jahan, Reefat Nayer, Farzana Sharmin

Objective: To compare the efficacy of metformin and laparoscopic ovarian drilling to be used in anovulatory patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) for ovulation induction and pregnancy achievement. Materials and Methods: Setting and Design: A prospective clinical trial conducted in the outpatient department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics of BIRDEM hospital from August 2008 to August 2013. Patient(s): Three hundred and eight newly diagnosed patie...



Jul 28, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Validation of Optimum Algorithm Parameters Required to Estimate Vocal Tract Shape for Children Using LPC Analysis

Nilashree S. Wankhede, Milind S. Shah

Severe or profound deafness in hearing impaired children, can curb their ability to speak due to the lack of auditory feedback. There has been a considerable attempt in developing commercial speech training aids for such children which give feedback of acoustic and articulatory parameters. Speech training aids based on visual feedback of vocal tract shape (VTS) are reported to be useful for the improvement in speech production. Since realistic VTS estima...



Jul 25, 2014Open    AccessArticle

A HILIC Mechanism Discussion for the Retention of HP-β-CD

Jianqiang Wei, Hui Wang, Song Wu
A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) method coupled with a refractive index (RI) detector was developed for the determination of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD). This HILIC method used simple acetonitrile/water (80/20, v/v) as the mobile phase to provide sufficient retention for HP-β-CD. The method was found to be specific without interference from the other constituents in pharmaceutics. The method was also validated for linearity and accuracy of t...


Jul 25, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Surface Modification and Dielectric Response Investigation of Cellulose Acetate Membrane Treated by ArF Excimer Laser

Ali Pourakbar Saffar, Babak Jaleh, Parviz Parvin, Pikul Wanichapichart, Mahdi Farshchi-Tabrizi

Lasers are used to modify the surface morphology, crystallinity, chemical composition, reactivity and resistivity of polymer surfaces. In this work, several cellulose acetate membranes were exposed by ArF excimer laser, 193 nm, at 2 - 20 UV pulses, with 100 - 350 mJ/pulse energy, at 1 Hz pulse repetition rate. Characterization techniques viz. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Contact angle measurement, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), At...



Jul 25, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Topology Preserving Discretization Schemes for Digital Image Segmentation and Digital Models of the Plane

Alexander V. Evako

In this paper, discretization schemes are defined and studied that allow us to build digital models of 2-dimensional continuous objects with the same topological properties as their continuous counterparts. In particular, it is shown that the digital model of the plane is necessarily the digital 2-surface defined and studied in the context of digital topology. It is shown that in proposed discretization schemes, any required resolution can be used in any...



Jul 25, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Analysis of Outdoor Human Thermal Comfort within Three Major Cities in Egypt

Mahmoud Bady

In this study, two thermal comfort indices are employed to investigate outdoor human thermal comfort within three major cities of different climates in Egypt. The indices are: the Discomfort Index (DI), and the Robaa Index (RI). The three considered cities are: Alexandria which is located in the north of Egypt, Cairo which is located in the middle and Aswan city which is located in the south of Egypt. The estimations of the two indices are based on the mean wind data of th...



Jul 24, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Reduction of Low Grade Egyptian Manganese Ore via Hydrogen at 800℃ - 950℃

Hala H. Abd El-Gawad, M. M. Ahmed, N. A. El-Hussiny, M. E. H. Shalabi
Low grade manganese ore fine was briquetted with different amounts of molasses under different pressure was studied in this investigation. In this study, the characterizations of raw materials were studied by different methods of analyses such as X-ray and chemical analyses. The results of briquetting show that as the pressing pressure load increased both the drop damage resistance and crushing strength increased and the optimum amount of molasses added was 2% and the pressing pressure was 216.7...


Jul 24, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Bioactive Compounds and Properties of Seaweeds—A Review

Archana Pal, Mohit Chandra Kamthania, Ajay Kumar

In last three decades the discovery of metabolite and biological activities from macroalgae has been increased significantly. Many sophisticated modern research tools are available for making of chemical compound but there are still many natural bioactive compounds in the womb of nature which is a mystery, scientist are still working to find out more biologically active compounds. Bioactive substances from seaweeds currently receive the more attention fr...



Jul 24, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Characteristics of Diamond-Like Carbon Thin Film Semiconductor for Photovoltaic Application

K. M. A. Hussain, T. Faruqe, J. L. Sullivan

Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) thin film semiconductors were produced by Radio Frequency Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (RF-PECVD) method and characterized by nanoindentation to investigate its mechanical properties for protective coating applications. The XRD analysis showed that the films were hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) nature. The thickness of the films was measured by Ellipsometry and Profilometry. The thickness variation with depos...



Jul 23, 2014Open    AccessArticle

Characteristics and Operation Conditions of a Closed-Field Unbalanced Dual Magnetrons Plasma Sputtering System

Bahaa T. Chiad, Mohammad K. Khalaf, Firas J. Kadhim, Oday A. Hammadi

In this work, a home-made closed-field unbalanced magnetron system for plasma sputtering purposes was constructed and operated. The effect of magnetron was introduced by comparing the obtained Paschen’s curve in existence of magnetron with and without magnetron. Characterization of Paschen’s curve as well as discharge current with gas pressure at different distances between the discharge electrodes was introduced. Optimum conditions to operate such home-...



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