All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


Human Health Risk Assessment of Trihalomethanes through Ingestion of Drinking Water in Shenzhen, China

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105406, PP. 1-11

Subject Areas: Public Health

Keywords: Drinking Water, Trihalomethanes, Heath Risk Assessment

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract

The potential health hazards of trihalomethanes (THMs) contamination in drinking water in Shenzhen were estimated. The concentrations of THMs in drinking water from 13 centralized water supply systems were determined from Jan 2015 to Dec 2016 in Shenzhen. The water environmental health risk assessment model recommended by USEPA was established based on the water monitoring data of THMs. Preliminary health risks of THMs through ingestion of drinking water were assessed. The median concentrations of THMs, TCM, DBCM, BDCM and TBM in drinking water were 37.0, 24.5, 2.3, 7.8 and 0.3 μg/L respectively. The values of carcinogenic risks for THMs, TCM, DBCM, BDCM, and TBM to the individual per year in drinking water were 4.52 × 10-5, 2.38 × 10-5, 6.07 × 10-6, 1.52 × 10-5 and 7.45 × 10-8 respectively. The values of non-carcinogenic risks for THMs, TCM, DBCM, BDCM and TBM to the individual per year in drinking water were 9.32 × 10-2, 7.68 × 10-2, 3.61 × 10-3, and 1.23 × 10-2 and 4.71 × 10-4 respectively. The health risk caused by THMs to the individual through ingestion of drinking water was in the order of TCM, BDCM, DBCM and TBM from high to low. The carcinogenic risks induced by THMs through ingestion of drinking water are acceptable with tolerable value offered by USEPA (1.0 × 10-6 - 1.0 × 10-4), but reached to the tolerable value (5.0 × 10-5) by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The non-carcinogenic risk of THMs is tolerable (HI < 1).


Cite this paper

Fang, D. , Zhou, G. , Yu, S. , Feng, J. and Guo, Y. (2019). Human Health Risk Assessment of Trihalomethanes through Ingestion of Drinking Water in Shenzhen, China. Open Access Library Journal, 6, e5406. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1105406.

References

[1]  Pándics, T., Hofer, á., Dura, G., et al. (2018) Health Risk of Swimming Pool Disinfection By-Products: A Regulatory Perspective. Journal of Water and Health, 16, 947-957. https://doi.org/10.2166/wh.2018.178
[2]  Chang, E.E., Chiang, P.C., Ko, Y.W., et al. (2001) Characteristics of Organic Precursors and Their Relationship with Disinfection By-Products. Chemosphere, 44, 1231-1236. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(00)00499-9
[3]  Tak, S. and Vellanki, B.P. (2018) Natural Organic Matter as Precursor to Disinfection Byproducts and Its Removal Using Conventional and Advanced Processes: State of the Art Review. Journal of Water and Health, 16, 681-703.
https://doi.org/10.2166/wh.2018.032
[4]  Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J., Smith, R., Golfinopoulos, S., et al. (2009) Health Impacts of Long-Term Exposure to Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water in Europe: HIWATE. Journal of Water and Health, 7, 185-207.
https://doi.org/10.2166/wh.2009.073
[5]  Sridhar, N., Krishnakishore, C., Sandeep, Y., et al. (2011) Chloroform Poisoning—A Case Report. Renal Failure, 33, 1037-1039.
https://doi.org/10.3109/0886022X.2011.618920
[6]  Richardson, S.D., Plewa, M.J., Wagner, E.D., et al. (2007) Occurrence, Genotoxicity, and Carcinogenicity of Regulated and Emerging Disinfection By-Products in Drinking Water: A Review and Roadmap for Research. Mutation Research, 636, 178-242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mrrev.2007.09.001
[7]  Chowdhury, S., Rodriguez, M.J., Sadiq, R., et al. (2011) Disinfection Byproducts in Canadian Provinces: Associated Cancer Risks and Medical Expenses. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 187, 574-584. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.01.085
[8]  Goldstein, B.D. (2005) Advances in Risk Assessment and Communication. Annual Review of Public Health, 26, 141-163.
https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.26.021304.144410
[9]  USEPA (2005) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. EPM603/P-03/001F, Washington DC.
[10]  USEPA (2011) Exposure Factors Handbook: 2011 Edition. EPA/600/R-09/052F, Washington DC.
[11]  USEPA (1991) Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume I—Human Health Evaluation Manual (Part B, Development of Risk Based Preliminary Remediation Goals). EPA/540/R92/003, Wash-ington DC.
[12]  Karim, Z., Qureshi, B., Ghouri, I., et al. (2013) Spatial Analysis of Human Health Risk Associated with Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water: A Case Study of Karachi, Pakistan. Journal of Chemistry, 2013, Article ID: 805682.
https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/805682
[13]  RAIS (Risk Assessment Information System) (2009) USEPA (Electronic Data Base).
http://rais.ornl.gov
[14]  Deng, Y., Wei, J., et al. (2008) Study for Distribution Level of Disinfection By-products in Drinking Water from Six Cities in China. Journal of Hygiene Research, 37, 207-210.
[15]  Office of Water USEPA (2012) Edition of the Drinking Water Standard and Health Advisories. EPA 822-S-12-001, Washington DC.

Full-Text


comments powered by Disqus