All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Characterization of Chitosan Membranes Crosslinked by Sulfuric Acid

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104336, PP. 1-13

Subject Areas: Bioengineering, Biological Materials, Cell Biology, Biochemistry

Keywords: Chitosan, Crosslinking, Biomedical Application

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Development of novel biomaterials and its practical application have been the subject of much research in the field of scaffolds for tissue engineering, providing the success of producing scaffolds biomaterials that facilitate tissue growth and provide structure support for cells. Due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability, chitosan has been the focus of several researches in recent years to be applied in the biomedical field and chemical modifications of chitosan through crosslinks can produce materials with a wide variety of properties. The objective of this study was to obtain and characterize, chemically and biologically, ionically crosslinked chitosan membranes. Chitosan membranes were prepared by solvent evaporation and the crosslinks were introduced by reaction with sulfuric acid solution. The cross-linked membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Dispersive Energy Spectroscopy (EDX) and contact angle measurements. The biological assays of the membranes were performed with NIH 3T3 cells in two steps: evaluation of cytotoxicity by indirect contact of the cells with the extracts of the chitosan membranes and finally with the direct contact of the cells on the filaments of chitosan to obtain adhesion and cell proliferation information. Non-crosslinked membranes of chitosan were used as controls for all assays. With the physicochemical tests, it was possible to observe an effective crosslinking reaction in chitosan. Biological assays have revealed that the membranes are non-cytotoxic but must still be modified to provide cell adhesion and proliferation.

Cite this paper

Fideles, T. B. , Santos, J. L. , Tomás, H. , Furtado, G. T. F. S. , Lima, D. B. , Borges, S. M. P. and Fook, M. V. L. (2018). Characterization of Chitosan Membranes Crosslinked by Sulfuric Acid. Open Access Library Journal, 5, e4336. doi:


[1]  Campana, S.P. and Signini, R. (2001) Efeitos de Aditivos na Desacetilacao de Quitina. Polímeros: Ciencia e Tecnologia, 11, 169-173.
[2]  Triplett, R.G., Schow, S.R. and Fields, R.T. (2001) Bone Augmentation with and without Biodegradable and Nonbiodegradable Microporous Membranes. Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics of North America, 13, 411-422.
[3]  Berger, J., Reist, M., Mayer, J.M., Felt, O., Peppas, N.A. and Gurny, R. (2004) Structure and Interactions in Covalently and Ionically Crosslinked Chitosan Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 57, 19-37.
[4]  Senel, S. and Mcclure, S.J. (2004) Potential Application of Chitosan in Veterinary Medicine. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 56, 1467-1480.
[5]  Bettini, R., Romani, A.A., Morganti, M.M. and Borghetti, A.F. (2008) Physicochemical and Cell Adhesion Properties of Chitosan Films Prepared from Sugar and Phosphate-Containing Solutions. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 68, 74-81.
[6]  Croisier, F. and Jérome, C. (2013) Chitosan-Based Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering. European Polymer Journal, 49, 780-792.
[7]  Subramanian, A., Rau, A.V. and Kaligotla, H. (2006) Surface Modification of Chitosan for Selective Surface Protein Interaction. Carbohydrate Polymers, 66, 321-332.
[8]  Laranjeira, M.C.M. and Fávere, T. (2009) Quitosana: biopolímero funcional com potencial industrial biomédico. Quimica Nova, 32, 672-678.
[9]  Shukla, S.K., Mishra, A.K., Arotiba, O. and Mamba, B.B. (2013) Chitosan-Based Nanomaterials: A State-Of-Art Review. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 59, 46-58.
[10]  Neto, C.G.T., Giacometti, J.A., Job, A.E., Ferreira, F.C., Fonseca, J.L.C. and Pereira, M.R. (2005) Thermal Analysis of Chitosan Based Networks. Carbohydrate Polymers, 62, 97-103.
[11]  Yang, B., Li, X., Kong, X., Guo, G., Huang, M., Luo, F., Wei, Y., Zhao, X. and Qian, Z. (2010) Preparation and Characterization of a Novel Chitosan Scaffold. Carbohydrate Polymers, 80, 860-865.
[12]  Beppu, M.M., Vieira, R.S., Aimali, C.G. and Santana, C.C. (2007) Crosslinking of Chitosan Membranes Using Glutaraldehyde: Effect on Ion Permeability and Water Absorption. Journal of Membrane Science, 301, 126-130.
[13]  Karakecili, A.G., Satriano, C., Gumusderelioglu, M. and Marletta, G. (2007) Surface Characteristics of Ionically Crosslinked Chitosan Membranes. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 106, 3884-3888.
[14]  Chiono, V., Pulieri, E., Vozzi, G., Ciardelli, G., Ahluwalia, A. and Giusti, P. (2008) Genipin-Crosslinked Chitosan/Gelatin Blends for Biomedical Applications. Journal of Material Science: Materials in Medicine, 19, 889-898.
[15]  Muzzarelli, R.A.A. (2009) Chitin and Chitosan for the Repair of Wounded Skin, Nerve, Cartilage and Bone. Carbohydrate Polymers, 76, 167-182.
[16]  Pujana, M.A., Pérez-álvarez, L., Iturbe, L.C.C. and Katime, I. (2013) Biodegradable Chitosan Nanogel Crosslinked with Genipin. Carbohydrate Polymers, 94, 836-842.
[17]  Devi, D.A., Smitha, B., Sridhar, S. and Aminabhavi, T.M. (2005) Pervaporation Separation of Isopropanol/Water Mixtures through Crosslinked Chitosan Membranes. Journal of Membrane Science, 262, 91-99.
[18]  Cui, Z., Xiang, Y., Si, J., Yang, M., Zhanf, Q. and Zhang, T. (2008) Ionic Interactions between Sulfuric Acid and Chitosan Membranes. Carbohydrate Polymers, 73, 111-116.
[19]  Dallan, R.M. (2005) Sintese e caracterizacao de membranas de quitosana para aplicacao na regeneracao da Pele. Tese, Doutorado em Engenharia Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica, Campinas, 194 p.
[20]  Tsai, H.S. and Wang, Y.Z. (2008) Properties of Hydrophilic Chitosan Network Membranes by Introducing Binary Crosslink Agents. Polymer Bulletin, 60, 103-113.
[21]  Ostrowska-Czubenko, J. and Gierszewska-Druzyńska, M. (2009) Effect of Ionic Crosslinking on the Water State in Hydrogel Chitosan Membranes. Carbohydrate Polymers, 77, 590-598.
[22]  Uragami, T. and Tokura, S. (2006) Materials Science of Chitin and Chitosan. Kodansha Ltd., Japan.
[23]  Marreco, R., Moreira, L., Genari, S.C. and Moraes, A.M. (2004) Effect of Different Sterilization Methods on the Morphology. Mechanical Properties, and Cytotoxicity of Chitosan Membranes Used as Wound Dressings. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, 71A, 268-277.
[24]  Farkhry, A., Schneider, G.B., Zaharias, R. and Senel, S. (2004) Chitosan Supports the Initial Attachment and Spreading of Osteoblasts Preferentially over Fibroblasts. Biomaterials, 25, 2075-2079.
[25]  Tremei, A., Cai, A., Tirtaatmadja, N., Hughes, B.D., Stevens, G.W., Landman, K.A. and O’Connor, A.J. (2009) Cell Migration and Proliferation during Monolayer Formation and Wound Healing. Chemical Engineering Science, 64, 247-253.
[26]  Hamilton, V., Yuan, Y., Rigney, D.A., Puckett, A.D., Ong, J.L., Yang, Y., Elder, S.H. and Bumgardner, J.D. (2006) Characterization of Chitosan Films and Effect on Fibroblast Cell Attachment and Proliferation. Journal of Material Science: Materials in Medicine, 17, 1373-1381.


comments powered by Disqus