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Tolerancia do tamanho da semente de soja (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) ao metribuzin Tolerance of soybeans (Glycine max (L.) merr.) seeds of different sizes to metribuzin
J. Ferreira da Silva,J. Francisco da Silva,R.F. da Silva,A.R. Conde
Planta Daninha , 1981, DOI: 10.1590/s0100-83581981000200005
Abstract: Este experimento foi instalado em casa-de-vegeta o com o objetivo de avaliar a tolerancia de três tamanhos de sementes de soja (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), cv. UFV-1 classificadas nas peneiras de 10/64" x 3/4", 13/64" x 3/4" e 15/64 x 3/4", a diferentes doses de metribuzin (4-amino-6-tertbutil-3-(metiltio-as-triazina-5(4H) ona ). As doses de 0, 300, 600, 900 e 1.200g do i.a./ha foram aplicadas nos materiais do solo de Ponta Nova-MG classificado como franco-argilo-arenoso, e as doses de 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 e 600g do i.a./ha em areia lavada. Nos materiais de solo de Ponte Nova, a inibi o de 50% do crescimento (I50) das plantas de soja correspondeu à aplica o de 600, 1050 e 1150 g/ha de metribuzin, enquanto em areia lavada os I-,,, foram de 150, 210 e 265g/ha de metribuzin para as sementes retidas nas peneiras 10/64" x 3/4", 13/64" x 3/4" e 15/64" x 3/4", respectivamente. O aumento do tamanho da semente aumentou a toleráncia da soja ao metribuzin. The tolerance of soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seeds of three different sizes to the herbicide metribuzin (4-amino-6-tert-butil-3-(metiltio)-astriazina-5(4H)ona) was examined in greenhouse. Seeds were separated on 10/64" x 3/4", 13/64" x x 3/4" and 15/64" x 3/4" sieves. Herbicide doses equivalent to 0, 300, 600, 900 and 1.200g a.i./ha were applied to a sandy loam Ponte Nova (M.G.) soil and 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 to 600g a.i./ha to washed sand. The growth of seeds of size 10, 13 and 15 were 50% inhibited (I50) at levels of 600, 1050 and 1150g of metribuzin in the soil and 150, 210 and 265g/ha in the sand. Thus larger seeds showed greater tolerance.
Using Relative Utility Pricing to Explain Multibuy Prices in Supermarkets and on the Internet  [PDF]
Philip Thomas, Alec Chrystal
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2013.38078
Abstract:

The Relative Utility Pricing (RUP) model is used to explain the prices for commodities being sold in supermarkets and on the internet. Grocery prices offered by the supermarkets, Tesco, Sainsbury and Waitrose in December 2009 and August 2013, are considered, as well as the prices of electronic items offered by Amazon on the internet at the same dates. The observed price for a pack can be given an explanation in terms of its size relative to the smallest pack considered by the customer (the baseline pack), the price and variable cost associated with the baseline pack and the demand density. The optimal price may be predicted using a profit maximising calculation if these data are available. Even if the vendor’s knowledge of the demand density is poor or non-existent, it is still possible for a vendor knowing his unit variable cost to calculate a useful approximation to the profit-maximising price by using a uniform or Rectangular demand density to represent customer demand. Alternatively, if there are no independent data on the demand density but the prices of the packs are available, it is possible to determine the approximate shape of the demand density leading to those prices. This demand density will then indicate whether the demand is soft or hard, with the Rectangular distribution indicating a neutral market. We consider the vendor to be a large retailer, such as a supermarket, who can obtain the product that he wishes to sell from a variety of suppliers at constant per-unit variable cost and hence marginal cost. Any sales at a price above marginal cost will contribute to profit. The RUP model provides an approximate match to the prices observed for supermarket milk and eggs by adjusting the demand density. A softening of the market for farm retail commodities is revealed between December 2009 and August 2013, fully consistent with the coincident long period of low growth and falling real wages in the UK economy. It is shown how the vendor may use product differentiation to buck this trend. The RUP model explains also the current prices of USB memory sticks, how those prices have evolved and how they are likely to evolve over time.

Subcontracting principles of interaction between enterprises of different sizes at a regional level
Eugeny Krasavin
Perspectives of Innovations, Economics and Business , 2009,
Abstract: This paper reviews peculiarities of interaction between enterprises of different sizes at a regional level in Russia on the basis of subcontracting. It defines basic conditions and organizational forms of such interaction related with circumstances of regional economic development. The paper also presents a comparison of American and Japanese subcontracting models considering possibility of borrowing certain specific features for the Russian conditions. It lists stable structures of interaction between small- and large-sized enterprises considering possibility of changing roles in integration schemes. On example of the Nizhny Novgorod region specializing in machine-building and metalworking, the most important peculiarities and perspective lines of subcontracting development in the medium run are reviewed.
Comparison of Digestive Enzyme Activity in Different Sizes of Monopterus ablus
不同规格黄鳝消化酶活性的比较

huan Zhi li,He Lan bo,hu yi,Dai Zhen yan,Wang Xiao qing,Xiao Tiao Yi,xia min,tang hua zhong,
郇志利
,何蓝波,胡毅,戴振炎,王晓清,肖调义,夏 敏,唐华钟

水生态学杂志 , 2012,
Abstract: 以相同环境条件下饲养2个月的黄鳝(Monopterus albus)为试验对象,以酶学方法研究3种规格(143.81±36.27)g、(76.63±14.43)g、(31.35±5.82)g]黄鳝的肝脏、前肠、后肠蛋白酶、脂肪酶和淀粉酶的活性以及消化酶(蛋白酶、脂肪酶和淀粉酶)在肝脏、前肠、后肠中的活性分布。结果表明,黄鳝蛋白酶活性从高到低依次为前肠>后肠>肝脏;淀粉酶活性从高到低依次为后肠>前肠>肝脏;脂肪酶活性从高到低依次为后肠>前肠>肝脏;随着黄鳝体重的增加,肠道蛋白酶活性逐渐升高,而肝脏蛋白酶活性变化不明显;后肠、肝脏淀粉酶活性随着黄鳝体重的增加而升高,而前肠淀粉酶活性降低;黄鳝脂肪酶活性有随着规格变大先升高、后降低的趋势,以中规格黄鳝消化组织的脂肪酶活性最高。
Influence of different weather events on concentrations of particulate matter with different sizes in Lanzhou, China

Xinyuan Feng,Shigong Wang,

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2012,
Abstract: The formation and development of weather events has a great impact on the diffusion, accumulation and transport of air pollutants, and causes great changes in the particulate pollution level. It is very important to study their influence on particulate pollution. Lanzhou is one of the most particulate-polluted cities in China and even in the world. Particulate matter (PM) including TSP, PM>10, PM2.5-10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentrations were simultaneously measured during 2005-2007 in Lanzhou to evaluate the influence of three kinds of weather events - dust, precipitation and cold front - on the concentrations of PM with different sizes and detect the temporal evolution. The main results are as follows: (1) the PM pollution in Lanzhou during dust events was very heavy and the rate of increase in the concentration of PM2.5-10 was the highest of the five kinds of particles. During dust-storm events, the highest peaks of the concentrations of fine particles (PM2.5 and PM1.0) occurred 3 hr later than those of coarse particles (PM>10 and PM2.5-10). (2) The major effect of precipitation events on PM is wet scavenging. The scavenging rates of particles were closely associated with the kinds of precipitation events. The scavenging rates of TSP, PM>10 and PM2.5-10 by convective precipitation were several times as high as those caused by frontal precipitation for the same precipitation amount, the reason being the different formation mechanism and precipitation characteristics of the two kinds of precipitation. Moreover, there exists a limiting value for the scavenging rates of particles by precipitation. (3) The major effect of cold-front events on particles is clearance. However, during cold-front passages, the PM concentrations could sometimes rise first and decrease afterwards, which is the critical difference in the influence of cold fronts on the concentrations of particulate pollutants vs. gaseous pollutants.
Immigration of Post Larvae of Penaeid Shrimp to Terminos Lagoon, Campeche, México: 2013 Annual Cycle  [PDF]
César Flores-Coto, Daniel Embriz-Alba, Mario Alejandro Gómez-Ponce, Juana López-Martínez, Laura Sanvicente-A?orve
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2018.89032
Abstract:
Immigration density magnitude and entry sizes of shrimp postlarvae to Terminos Lagoon were analyzed through sixteen fortnightly sampling from March to November in 2013, in three levels in the deepest channel of the Puerto Real inlet. Trapezium nets were used with 1.5 m length, 50 cm mouth diameter and 505 μm mesh, during each sampling 12 casts of 15 minutes/each were made. It was determined the presence of two species Litopenaeus setiferus and Farfantepenaeus duorarum, with total densities of 41.284 and 37.558 Pls 100 m-3 respectively. The annual cycle of immigration of postlarvae was very similar for both species, with a clear pattern of immigration throughout the year, linked to climatic variation, with the highest densities (88%) during rainy season. There were two periods of maximum density, related to the periods of greatest reproduction of these species. The density variation among cast reflects the presence of at least two and probably more postlarvae banks, located some closer than others to the mouth of the lagoon and with different densities in them. The average sizes of the two species were 7.9 mm total length of L. setiferus and 9.0 mm of F. duorarum. The differences in income sizes of both species seem to indicate the habitat preference of adult populations, L. setiferus occurring in more coastal areas than F. duorarum. Considering the variation in density and sizes throughout each sampling period, it is evident that the larvae on the banks belong to different cohorts and that have coincided in their location in front of the mouth.
Study on Seed Morphology and Genetic Diversity of Jatropha curcas L. from Different Provenances
Junjiao Guan,Hong Yu,Jianhua Zhang,Roupeng Yang
Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose shrub has acquired signi cant economic importance for its seed oil which can be converted to biodiesel, is emerging as an alternative to petro-diesel. The present study aims at characterization of the seed morphology and genetic diversity of Jatropha curcas L. from eight different provenances for providing support for the breeding and allocation of seed. Five traits were investigated, including hundred seed weight, seed length, width, lateral diameter, seed length and width ratio. The genetic diversity of eight populations from different provenances was estimated using DALP method (5 primers). The results showed that seed morphology had significant variation among locations. Five DALP primers generated highly reproducible and stable DNA fragments. 219 of 244 loci were polymorphic, i.e., PPB was 89.75%. And POPGENE analysis indicated the total Nei’s gene diversity (H) was 0.2878, the total Shannon's Information index (I) was 0.4331, and the coefficient of Gene differentiation (Gst) was 0.8200 among populations, namely 82.00% genetic variation occurring among populations and 20.00% remaining within population. It was suggested that a high level of genetic variation should be occur among the different populations of J. curcas. The high genetic differentiation among the populations could be caused by not only the limited gene flow (Nm = 0.1097) but also the genetic drift. The result indicates that the seed morphology among populations showed some certain differentiation. The eight populations had high level of genetic diversity and show apparent genetic differentiation. So that provenance selection has great potentiality.
Polyplacophora species richness, composition and distribution of its community associated with the intertidal rocky substrate in the marine priority region No. 32 in Guerrero, Mexico  [PDF]
Rafael Flores-Garza, Lizeth Galeana-Rebolledo, Sergio García Ibá?ez, Carmina Torreblanca-Ramírez
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2012.24023
Abstract: The coast of Acapulco is located within the Marine Priority Region No. 32 (MPR No. 32) at the State of Guerrero, Mexico. The National Commission for the Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity has stated the lack of information on marine species that live there, among which are the Class Polyplacophora. This study aimed to: 1) determine species richness, 2) the community structure based on the representative families, 3) estimate the density, 4) locate species distribution, 5) determine their degree of occurrence (hierarchical position) within the community, 6) analyze the structure of length and width across the populations and 7) estimate the diversity index. The intertidal rocky substrate at seven beaches was sampled from 2009 to 2012. The sampling unit 1 m2, while the area sampled was 10 m2. It was analyzed 2.548 specimens of Polyplacophora, with 20 species identified. Tonicellidae and Ischnochitonidae were the Families better represented inspecies richness and Chitonidae in abundance. Lepidochitona flectens is a new record for the Mexican Tropical Pacific and Stenoplax mariposa for MPR. No. 32. The density was 25.48 specimens/m2. Eight dominant species were determined. Chiton albolineatus had the highest density. Ischnochiton muscarius, Chaetopleura unilineata, Chiton albolineatus and Chiton articulatus presented wide distribution. Chiton articulatus showed the largest size in length and width. H’ = 2.01 bits/ individual. Numerous dominant species were present with broad and regular distribution, probably due to Polyplacophora body design, which allows for better adaptation to the rigorous environmental conditions of the rocky intertidal.
Concentration and Distribution Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Airborne Particles with Different Sizes
不同粒径大气颗粒物中多环芳烃的含量及分布特征

ZHOU Jia-bin,WANG Tie-guan,HUANG Yun-bi,MAO Ting,ZHONG Ning-ning,ZHANG Yi,ZHANG Xiao-shan,
周家斌
,王铁冠,黄云碧,毛婷,钟宁宁,张逸,张晓山

环境科学 , 2005,
Abstract: Airborne particles with different sizes were collected in 2003 at two sampling sites(urban border and suburban area) of Beijing. Compositions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected by GC/MS. The results show that total concentrations of 17 PAHs ranged between 0.84 and 152.23 ng/m3, in urban border area were 1.07 - 6.60 times higher than those measured in suburban area. The total concentration of PAHs increased with decreasing ambient temperature (winter > autumn > spring > summer). About 68.4% - 84.7% of PAHs were absorbed on particles having aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.0 microm. The distribution of PAHs varies with the size of the molecules. Nearly bimodal distribution was found for two- and three-rings PAHs, four- to six-rings PAHs, however, followed unimodal distribution. The overall mass median diameter (MMD) for PAHs decreases with increasing molecular weight. Higher pollution level of PAHs in wintertime is probably ascribed to domestic heating and lower ambient temperature.
Effect of Different Sowing Dates on Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) Cultivars
Mahmood-ul-Hassan,Muhammad Nasrullah,Muhammad Zaffar Iqbal,Taj Muhammad
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2003,
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of sowing date on two cotton varieties MNH552 and MNH554 grown on Ist April, 15th April, Ist. May, 15th May, Ist. June, 15th June, Ist. July and 15th July during 1998 and 1999 under Multan conditions. 15th May and Ist June sown cotton displayed significantly maximum seed cotton yield of 2998 and 2883 kg ha-1 in 1998 and 4027 and 3894 kg ha-1 respectively in 1999 as compared to 595 and 253 kg ha-1 (1998) and 1269 and 223 kg ha-1 (1999) from crop sown on Ist and 15th July respectively. The increase in both sowing dates in seed cotton yield was associated with boll weight and bolls per plant. On average of two years data 15th May produced highest seed cotton yield of 3513 kg ha-1, whereas the lowest figure was 238 kg ha-1 (15th July). Comparing varietal performance MNH552 (2310 kg ha-1) yielded higher as compared to MNH554 (2288 kg ha-1). However two cultivars declined the yield in late planting.
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