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PLOS ONE  2012 

Conjugative Botulinum Neurotoxin-Encoding Plasmids in Clostridium botulinum

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011087

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Abstract:

Clostridium botulinum produces seven distinct serotypes of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs). The genes encoding different subtype neurotoxins of serotypes A, B, F and several dual neurotoxin-producing strains have been shown to reside on plasmids, suggesting that intra- and interspecies transfer of BoNT-encoding plasmids may occur. The objective of the present study was to determine whether these C. botulinum BoNT-encoding plasmids are conjugative.

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