autologous and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (bmt) recipients lose immune memory of exposure to infectious agents and vaccines accumulated through a lifetime and therefore need to be revaccinated. diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, pertussis vaccine (children <7 years old), haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate, 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide, inactivated influenza vaccine, inactivated polio vaccine and live-attenuated measles-mumps-rubella vaccine are the currently recommended vaccines to be included in a vaccination program after bmt. for most of them, the best time to vaccinate, the number of vaccine doses and/or the duration of immunity after vaccination have not been established. vaccination protocols vary greatly among bmt centers, suggesting that the lack of sufficient data has not permitted the formulation of reliable recommendations. the use of other vaccines and the perspectives for different vaccination protocols are analyzed in this review.