All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

PLOS ONE  2012 

Untrained Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) Fail to Imitate Novel Actions

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041548

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Background Social learning research in apes has focused on social learning in the technical (problem solving) domain - an approach that confounds action and physical information. Successful subjects in such studies may have been able to perform target actions not as a result of imitation learning but because they had learnt some technical aspect, for example, copying the movements of an apparatus (i.e., different forms of emulation learning). Methods Here we present data on action copying by non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees when physical information is removed from demonstrations. To date, only one such study (on gesture copying in a begging context) has been conducted – with negative results. Here we have improved this methodology and have also added non-begging test situations (a possible confound of the earlier study). Both familiar and novel actions were used as targets. Prior to testing, a trained conspecific demonstrator was rewarded for performing target actions in view of observers. All but one of the tested chimpanzees already failed to copy familiar actions. When retested with a novel target action, also the previously successful subject failed to copy – and he did so across several contexts. Conclusion Chimpanzees do not seem to copy novel actions, and only some ever copy familiar ones. Due to our having tested only non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees, the performance of our test subjects speak more than most other studies of the general (dis-)ability of chimpanzees to copy actions, and especially novel actions.

References

[1]  Rakoczy H, Warneken F, Tomasello M (2008) The Sources of Normativity: Young Children’s Awareness of the Normative Structure of Games. Developmental Psychology 44: 875–881.
[2]  Tennie C, Call J, Tomasello M (2009) Ratcheting Up the Ratchet: On the Evolution of Cumulative Culture. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences 364: 2405–2415.
[3]  Gergely G, Csibra G (2005) The Social Construction of the Cultural Mind: Imitative Learning as a Mechanism of Human Pedagogy. Interaction Studies 6: 463–481.
[4]  Richerson PJ, Boyd R (2005) Not by Genes Alone: How Culture Transformed Human Evolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
[5]  Tomasello M (1999) The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. vi, 248 p.
[6]  Nielsen M (2006) Copying Actions and Copying Outcomes: Social Learning Through the Second Year. Developmental Psychology 42: 555–565.
[7]  Laland KN (2004) Social Learning Strategies. Learning & Behavior 32: 4–14.
[8]  Enquist M, Eriksson K, Ghirlanda S (2007) Critical Social Learning: A Solution to Rogers’s Paradox of Nonadaptive Culture. American Anthropologist 109: 727–734.
[9]  Laland KN, Galef BG Jr(2009) The Question of Animal Culture. Cambridge, MA, US: Harvard University Press.
[10]  Acerbi A, Tennie C, Nunn CL (2011) Modeling Imitation and Emulation in Constrained Search Spaces. Learning & Behavior 39: 104–114.
[11]  Herrmann E, Call J, Hernández-Lloreda MV, Hare B, Tomasello M (2007) Humans Have Evolved Specialized Skills of Social Cognition: The Cultural Intelligence Hypothesis. Science 317: 1360–1366.
[12]  Moll H, Tomasello M (2007) Cooperation and Human Cognition: The Vygotskian Intelligence Hypothesis. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences 362: 639–648.
[13]  Caldwell CA, Millen AE (2009) Social Learning Mechanisms and Cumulative Cultural Evolution: Is Imitation Necessary? Psychological Science 20: 1478–1483.
[14]  Heyes CM (in press) What Can Imitation Do for Cooperation? In: Calcott B, Joyce R, Sterelny K, editors. Signalling, Commitment & Cooperation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
[15]  Over H, CarpenterM (2011) Putting the Social into Social Learning: Explaining both Selectivity and Fidelity in Children’s Copying Behavior. Journal of Comparative Psychology. Advance online publication.
[16]  Meltzoff AN (2007) ‘Like Me’: A Foundation for Social Cognition. Developmental Science 10: 126–134.
[17]  Tennie C, Call J, Tomasello M (2006) Push or Pull: Imitation vs. Emulation in Great Apes and Human Children. Ethology 112: 1159–1169.
[18]  Tennie C, Call J, Tomasello M (2010) Evidence for Emulation in Chimpanzees in Social Settings Using the Floating Peanut Task. PLoS ONE 5: e10544.
[19]  Byrne RW, Tanner JE (2006) Gestural Imitation by a Gorilla: Evidence and Nature of the Capacity. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy 6: 215–231.
[20]  Whiten A, Horner V, Litchfield CA, Marshall-Pescini S (2004) How Do Apes Ape? Learning & Behavior 32: 36–52.
[21]  Hopper LM, Lambeth SP, Schapiro SJ, Whiten A (2008) Observational Learning in Chimpanzees and Children Studied Through ‘Ghost’ Conditions. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences 275: 835–840.
[22]  Whiten A, Spiteri A, Horner V, Bonnie KE, Lambeth SP, et al. (2007) Transmission of Multiple Traditions Within and Between Chimpanzee Groups. Current Biology 17: 1038–1043.
[23]  Whiten A, Horner V, de Waal FBM (2005) Conformity to Cultural Norms of Tool Use in Chimpanzees. Nature 437: 737–740.
[24]  Hopper LM, Spiteri A, Lambeth SP, Schapiro SJ, Horner V, et al. (2007) Experimental Studies of Traditions and Underlying Transmission Processes in Chimpanzees. Animal Behaviour 73: 1021–1032.
[25]  Dawkins R (2006) Climbing Mount Improbable. Penguin Group.
[26]  Bonnie KE, Horner V, Whiten A, de Waal FBM (2007) Spread of Arbitrary Conventions Among Chimpanzees: A Controlled Experiment. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences 274: 367–372.
[27]  Byrne RW (1994) The Evolution of Intelligence. In: Slater PJB, Halliday TR, editors. Behavior and Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 223–265.
[28]  Byrne RW (2005) Detecting, Understanding, and Explaining Animal Imitation. In: Hurley S, Chater N, editors. Perspectives on Imitation: From Mirror Neurons to Memes. Cambridge, MA, US: The MIT Press. 255–282.
[29]  Byrne RW (2002) Imitation of Novel Complex Actions: What Does the Evidence from Animals Mean? Advances in the Study of Behavior 31: 77–105.
[30]  Janik VM, Slater PJB (2000) The Different Roles of Social Learning in Vocal Communication. Animal Behaviour 60: 1–11.
[31]  Call J (2001) Body Imitation in an Encultured Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus). Cybernetics and Systems 32: 97–119.
[32]  Call J, Carpenter M (2002) Three Sources of Information in Social Learning. In: Dautenhahn K, Nehaniv CL, editors. Imitation in Animals and Artifacts. Cambridge, MA, US: The MIT Press. 211–228.
[33]  Byrne RW, Russon AE (1998) Learning by Imitation: A Hierarchical Approach. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21: 667–721.
[34]  Tomasello M, Savage-Rumbaugh S, Kruger AC (1993) Imitative Learning of Actions on Objects by Children, Chimpanzees, and Enculturated Chimpanzees. Child Development 64: 1688–1705.
[35]  Tomasello M, Call J (2004) The Role of Humans in the Cognitive Development of Apes Revisited. Animal Cognition 7: 213–215.
[36]  Hayes KJ, Hayes C (1952) Imitation in a Home-Raised Chimpanzee. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section B Comparative and Physiological Psychology 45: 450–459.
[37]  Huber L, Range F, Voelkl B, Szucsich A, Virányi Z, et al. (2009) The Evolution of Imitation: What Do the Capacities of Non-Human Animals Tell Us About the Mechanisms of Imitation? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences 364: 2299–2309.
[38]  Ray ED, Heyes CM (2011) Imitation in infancy: The Wealth of the Stimulus. Developmental Science 14: 92–105.
[39]  Henrich J, Heine SJ, Norenzayan A (2010) Beyond WEIRD: Towards a Broad-Based Behavioral Science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33: 111–135.
[40]  Tomasello M, Call J, Warren J, Frost GT, Carpenter M, et al. (1997) The Ontogeny of Chimpanzee Gestural Signals: A Comparison Across Groups and Generations. Evolution of Communication 1: 223–253.
[41]  Marshall-Pescini S, Whiten A (2008) Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and the Question of Cumulative Culture: An Experimental Approach. Animal Cognition 11: 449–456.
[42]  Hrubesch C, Preuschoft S, van Schaik CP (2009) Skill Mastery Inhibits Adoption of Observed Alternative Solutions among Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Animal Cognition 12: 209–216.
[43]  Gruber T, Muller MN, Reynolds V, Wrangham R, Zuberbühler K (2011) Community-specific Evaluation of Tool Affordances in Wild Chimpanzees. Scientific Reports 1, 128.
[44]  Hopper LM, Schapiro SJ, Lambeth SP, Brosnan SF (2011) Chimpanzees’ Socially Maintained Food Preferences Indicate both Conservatism and Conformity. Animal Behaviour 81: 1195–1202.
[45]  Hanus D, Mendes N, Tennie C, Call J (2011) Comparing the Performances of Apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus) and Human Children (Homo sapiens) in the Floating Peanut Task. PLoS ONE 6: e19555.
[46]  Price EE, Lambeth SP, Schapiro SJ, Whiten A (2009) A Potent Effect of Observational Learning on Chimpanzee Tool Construction. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences 276: 3377–3383.
[47]  Dean LG, Kendal RL, Schapiro SJ, Thierry B, Laland KN (2012) Identification of the Social and Cognitive Processes Underlying Human Cumulative Culture. Science 335: 1114–1118.
[48]  Pryor K (1999) Don’t Shoot the Dog!: The New Art of Teaching and Training New York: Bantam Books.
[49]  Hopper LM, Lambeth SP, Schapiro SJ (2012) An Evaluation of the Efficacy of Video Displays for Use with Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). American Journal of Primatology 74: 442–449.
[50]  Rendell L, Fogarty L, Hoppitt WJE, Morgan TJH, Webster MM, et al. (2011) Cognitive Culture: Theoretical and Empirical Insights into Social Learning Strategies. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15: 68–76.
[51]  Whiten A, Goodall J, McGrew WC, Nishida T, Reynolds V, et al. (1999) Cultures in Chimpanzees. Nature 399: 682–685.
[52]  Marshall-Pescini S, Whiten A (2008) Social Learning of Nut-Cracking Behavior in East African Sanctuary-Living Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). Journal of Comparative Psychology 122: 186–194.
[53]  Estes RD (1991) Old World Monkeys - Communication in the Family Cercopithecidae. In: Estes RD, editor. The Behavior Guide to African Mammals. Berkely, Los Angeles, London: The University of California Press..
[54]  Buttelmann D, Carpenter M, Call J, Tomasello M (2007) Enculturated Chimpanzees Imitate Rationally. Developmental Science 10: F31–F38.
[55]  Hanus D, Call J (2008) Chimpanzees Infer the Location of a Reward on the Basis of the Effect of Its Weight. Current Biology 18: R370–R372.
[56]  Dindo M, Whiten A, de Waal FBM (2009) Social Facilitation of Exploratory Foraging Behavior in Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella). American Journal of Primatology 71: 419–426.
[57]  Hare B (2001) Can Competitive Paradigms Increase the Validity of Experiments on Primate Social Cognition? Animal Cognition 4: 269–280.
[58]  Whiten A, Ham R (1992) On the Nature and Evolution of Imitation in the Animal Kingdom Reappraisal of a Century of Research. Advances in the Study of Behavior 21: 239–283.
[59]  Custance DM, Whiten A, Bard KA (1995) Can Young Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Imitate Arbitrary Actions? Hayes and Hayes (1952) Revisited. Behaviour 132: 837–859.
[60]  Hopper LM, Marshall-Pescini S,Whiten A (2012) Social Learning and Culture in Child and Chimpanzee. In: de Waal FBM, Ferrari PF, editors. The Primate Mind: Built to Connect with Other Minds. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA. 99–118.
[61]  de Waal FBM (2001) The Ape and the Sushi Master: Cultural Reflections by a Primatologist New York: Basic Books.
[62]  Horner V, Whiten A (2007) Learning From Others’ Mistakes? Limits on Understanding a Trap-Tube Task by Young Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and Children (Homo sapiens). Journal of Comparative Psychology 121: 12–21.
[63]  Genty E, Breuer T, Hobaiter C, Byrne R (2009) Gestural Communication of the Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla): Repertoire, Intentionality and Possible Origins. Animal Cognition 12: 527–546.
[64]  Langergraber KE, Boesch C, Inoue E, Inoue-Murayama M, Mitani JC, et al. (2011) Genetic and ‘Cultural’ Similarity in Wild Chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences 278: 408–416.
[65]  Hobaiter C, Byrne RW (2010) Able-Bodied Wild Chimpanzees Imitate a Motor Procedure Used by a Disabled Individual to Overcome Handicap. PLoS ONE 5: e11959.
[66]  van Schaik CP, Pradhan GR (2003) A Model for Tool-Use Traditions in Primates: Implications for the Coevolution of Culture and Cognition. Journal of Human Evolution 44: 645–664.
[67]  Tennie C, Over H (in press) Cultural Intelligence is Key to Explaining Human Tool Use. Behavioral and Brain Sciences comment.
[68]  Sanz C, Call J, Morgan D (2009) Design Complexity in Termite-Fishing Tools of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Biology Letters 5: 293–296.
[69]  Tennie C,Hedwig D (2009) How Latent Solution Experiments Can Help to Study Differences Between Human Culture and Primate Traditions. In: Potocki E, Krasiński J, editors. Primatology: Theories, Methods and Research. New York: Nova Publishers. 95–112.
[70]  Tennie C, Hedwig D, Call J, Tomasello M (2008) An Experimental Study of Nettle Feeding in Captive Gorillas. American Journal of Primatology 70: 584–593.
[71]  Boesch C, Head J, Robbins MM (2009) Complex Tool Sets for Honey Extraction Among Chimpanzees in Loango National Park, Gabon. Journal of Human Evolution 56: 560–569.
[72]  Morgan BJ, Abwe EE (2006) Chimpanzees Use Stone Hammers in Cameroon. Current Biology 16: R632–R633.
[73]  Galef BG Jr (1992) The Question of Animal Culture. Human Nature 3: 157–178.
[74]  Tomasello M, Kruger AC, Ratner HH (1993) Cultural Learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16: 495–511.
[75]  Boyd R, Richerson PJ (1996) Why Culture is Common, but Cultural Evolution is Rare Proceedings of the British Academy. 88: 77–93.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us

service@oalib.com

QQ:3279437679

微信:OALib Journal