the tribe hippomaneae (euphorbiaceae) in brazil. the tribe hippomaneae is discussed with respect to its taxonomic history, its placement within the euphorbiaceae, its diagnostic characters (particularly the floral buds), current data on phylogeny and subdivision, and its general pattern of diversity. the tribe is represented in brazil with 13 genera and ca. 120 species. a key to the brazilian genera is provided. all brazilian genera are discussed, citing relevant characters, recent taxonomic literature, and the current state of knowledge, sometimes pointing to unresolved problems. for five of the genera, published revisions exist; six genera have unpublished but completed revisions or are currently under revision. actinostemon and gymnanthes are currently the most difficult genera, mostly based on the absence of available up-to-date taxonomic references. for mabea and senefeldera, two genera with completed but currently unpublished revisions, additional data are given on aspects of their taxonomy, ecology and biogeography.