background: in pathological anatomy laboratories, there are several kinds of environmental and occupational hazards, which can be associated with work accidents and occupational diseases. objectives: to identify and assess work process risks in order to raise workers' awareness. methods: it was carried out an investigation into work processes, flow of services, equipment, site, products, materials, residues, work teams and workers' activities. subsequently, the agents were assessed and the graphic representation of the risk map was developed. results: the presence of chemical, physical, biological and accidental risks and ergonomic inadequacies were observed. conclusion: biological and chemical agents were identified as the main risks in the work process. furthermore, the necessity of refurbishment and additional investments in the purchase of individual and collective protection equipment was noticed. the adherence to biosecurity protocols and the introduction of continuing education programs are invaluable to reduce occupational and environmental hazards.