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Keywords: knowledge, know (that/how), belief, epistemic, knowledge social theory, ethics.

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this article examines an epistemic notion of knowledge as opposed to other epistemic visions. for that purpose, it starts by rethinking chisholm's proposal (1977/1982) and highlights the language difficulty to differentiate between to know (that/how) and knowing. it analyzes other notions such as justification, certainty and evidence, and reviews the adjustments proposed by this author to the traditional definition of knowledge. then, it examines luis villoro's approach (1982) in order to study the difference he tries to establish between knowledge and knowing, including the grounds and reasons, the relationship of knowledge with practice and some ethical issues about the justification of beliefs. it emphasizes the need to tackle the problem of the border issue between believing, knowledge and knowing in a different way. the problem of grading the evidence, some issues related to the criterion of truth and other matters are also stressed. finally, concerning the many ethical implications that human knowledge currently has, the need for a social theory of knowledge along with an anthropological support for the same is highlighted.


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