astyanax gymnodontus (eigenmann, 1911), new combination, a polymorphic characid fish endemic to the rio igua？u basin in southern brazil, is redescribed. the species was originally described as belonging to the monotypic genus psalidodon, distinguished from astyanax by the possession of a single series of teeth on the premaxilla (vs. two series), by the presence of relatively compressed teeth on the premaxillary and dentary bones (vs. relatively bulky teeth), and by the absence of lips (vs. lips present). examination of a large number of specimens from the rio igua？u basin that present dental and lip features that were intermediate between psalidodon and astyanax indicated that specimens attributed to psalidodon show extreme characters observed within a polymorphic astyanax species. accordingly, the genus psalidodon is synonymized under astyanax. specimens of "astyanax sp. f" morphotype from the rio igua？u basin belong to the species astyanax gymnodontus and display a regular tooth arrangement and morphology, and their lip development is similar to that of other astyanax species.