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Electrochemical Biosensor Based on Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes with Modified Surfaces

DOI: 10.1155/2012/567171

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Boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin films, as one kind of electrode materials, are superior to conventional carbon-based materials including carbon paste, porous carbon, glassy carbon (GC), carbon nanotubes in terms of high stability, wide potential window, low background current, and good biocompatibility. Electrochemical biosensor based on BDD electrodes have attracted extensive interests due to the superior properties of BDD electrodes and the merits of biosensors, such as specificity, sensitivity, and fast response. Electrochemical reactions perform at the interface between electrolyte solutions and the electrodes surfaces, so the surface structures and properties of the BDD electrodes are important for electrochemical detection. In this paper, the recent advances of BDD electrodes with different surfaces including nanostructured surface and chemically modified surface, for the construction of various electrochemical biosensors, were described. 1. Introduction Combining the advantages of the electrochemical techniques, electrochemical biosensors have been increasingly developed for many applications in environmental monitoring, food analysis, detection of biological metabolites, and clinical chemistry, and so forth, due to their specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, and portability [1–3]. The performance of electrochemical biosensors mainly depend on the physical and chemical characteristics of the materials, including shape and structure, employed for the construction of the transducer and the methods used for the immobilization of biomolecules. Conventional carbon-based materials including, carbon paste, porous carbon, glassy carbon, and carbon nanotubes have been widely employed as electrochemical transducers in the field of biosensors due to simple preparation methods, large positive potential ranges, and suitability for chemical modification [4–7]. However, traditional carbon-based electrodes still suffer some drawbacks, such as electrode fouling, which limits their long-term stability and leads to frequent polishing or disposal of the electrode. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin films, as one new kind of electrode materials, are gaining big researching interests. Nowadays, the development of diamond growth by chemical vapor deposition has enabled the preparation of the BDD electrodes with different surface structures on various substrates. The electrochemical properties of the BDD electrodes have also been intensively studied [8–12]. The results showed that the BDD electrodes possess many outstanding properties, including wide electrochemical potential

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