The objective of this work is to develop a new method for extracting nanocrystalline
cellulose (CNC) from eucalyptus. CNC was isolated from eucalyptus
using 6:4 (v/v) tetrahydrofuran/water. The chemical and crystalline
structure of the isolated CNC was characterized by zeta potential measurements,
Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and UV-Vis spectroscopies, and
X-ray powder diffractometry. The CNC morphology was characterized by
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and particle size of CNC was determined
by the Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) method. Cytotoxicity and
zebrafish-toxicity experiments were also performed on CNC. The yield of
CNC using the new extraction method was about 41%, and the extracted
CNC particles were about 20 nm in diameter and about 40 nm long, on average.
The zeta potential of the CNC was determined to be -56 eV and the CN
particles were uniformly distributed in a suspension of 0.5 wt%. The prepared
CNC was a type I polymorph with an intact crystal structure. Toxicity results
revealed that 0.5 wt% is a safe CNC concentration, and that 2.5 mg/mL CNC
is not teratogenic or lethal to zebrafish embryos or juveniles. The new extraction
method developed in this study is environmentally friendly, and easy to
operate with relatively low cost.
Sadeghifar, H., Filpponen, I. and Clake, S.P. (2011) Production of Cellulose Nanocrystals Using Hydrobromic Acid and Click Reactions on the Surface. Journal of Materials Science, 46, 7344-7348. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-011-5696-0
Khan, A., Khan, R.A., Salmieri, S., et al. (2012) Mechanical and Barrier Properties of Nanocrystalline Cellulose Reinforced Chitosan Based Nanocomposite Films. Carbohydrate Polymers, 90, 1601-1608. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.07.037
Jackson, J.K., Letchford, K., Wasserman, B.Z., et al. (2011) The Use of Nanocrystalline Cellulose for the Binding and Controlled Release of Drugs. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 6, 321-330. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S16749
Mohanta, V., Madras, G. and Patil, S. (2014) Layer-by-Layer Assembled Thin Films and Microcapsules of Nanocrystalline Cellulose for Hydrophobic Drug Delivery. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 6, 20093-20101.
Tang, L., Lin, F., Li, T., et al. (2018) Design and Synthesis of Functionalized Cellulose Nanocrystals-Based Drug Conjugates for Colon-Targeted Drug Delivery. Cellulose, 25, 4525-4536. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-018-1904-2
Kontturi, E., Meriluoto, A., Penttila, P.A., et al. (2016) Degradation and Crystallization of Cellulose in Hydrogen Chloride Vapor for High-Yield Isolation of Cellulose Nanocrystals. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 55, 14455-14458.
Hamad, W.Y. and Hu, T.Q. (2010) Structure-Process-Yield Interrelations in Nanocrystalline Cellulose Extraction. The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 88, 392-402. https://doi.org/10.1002/cjce.20298
Saito, T., Kimura, S., Nishiyama, Y. and Isogai, A. (2007) Cellulose Nanofibers Prepared by TEMPO-Mediated Oxidation of Native Cellulose. Biomacromolecules, 8, 2485-2491. https://doi.org/10.1021/bm0703970
Striillle, U., Scholz, S., Geisler, R., et al. (2012) Zebrafish Embryos as All Alternative to Animal Experiments—A Commentary on the Definition of the Onset of Protected Life Stages in Animal Welfare Regulations. Reprod Toxicol, 33, 128-132.
Peng, Y.R., Wei, Y.J., Ding, Y.F., et al. (2017) Development of Drug Toxicity and Novel Strategy for Toxicity of Chinese Materia Medica Based on Zebrafish Model. Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs, 48, 17-30.
Chundawat, S.P.S., Bellesia, G., Uppugundla, N., et al. (2011) Restructuring the Crystalline Cellulose Hydrogen Bond Network Enhances Its Depolymerization Rate. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 133, 11163-11174.
Zhang, R.L. and Liu, Y. (2018) High Energy Oxidation and Organosolv Solubilization for High Yield Isolation of Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNC) from Eucalyptus Hardwood. Scientific Reports, 8, 16505-16516.
Vieira, M.C., Antonio, C.R., Mendoza, M.A.M., et al. (2010) Cellulose Derivatives from Cellulosic Material Isolated from Agave lechuguilla and Fourcroydes. Cellulose, 9, 203-212. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1020158128506
Kaushik, A., Singh, M. and Verma, G. (2010) Green Composites Based on Thermoplastic Starch and Steam Exploded Cellulose Nanofibrils from Wheat Straw. Carbonhydrate Polymers, 82, 337-345. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.04.063
Zhang, H., Gao, H.K., Wang, Z., et al. (2018) Research and Characterization of Nanometer Cellulose Prepared by Hydrolysis of Microcrystalline Cellulose with Sulfuric Acid. Journal of Capital Normal University, 8, 31-35.