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Genomic Instability in Cancer II: 4N-Skewed (90°) Reductive Division via Fragile Sites to Fitness Increase for Solid and Hematological Cancer Beginnings

DOI: 10.4236/jct.2019.107045, PP. 537-564

Keywords: Centrifugal 90° Turn, Centrosome Absence, Mitotic Slippage Process, Diplochromosomes, Mutator Mechanism, Satellite DNA Mutations, Fragile Site Instability, Repair Mutations, Copy Number Variants, Chromosome Nuclear Domains, Hematologic Translocations, Density Bone Marrow Substrate, Abnormal Laminar Proteins, Chromosome/Gene UPD, Haplo-Insufficiency

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Abstract:

The objective herein was to connect the ontogeny process of diplochromosomal, amitotic, 4n-skewed division-system, to cytogenetic deficiency lesions in satellite, repetitive DNAs, especially in the chromosomal fragile sites, some 100 distributed over the genome. These latter studies had shown that chemical induced replication-stress led to un-replicated lesions in these fragile sites, which from inaccurate repair processes caused genomic instability. In the chain of events of the ontogeny process to the special tetraploidy, it was proposed that primary damaged human cells could undergo replication stress from repair-process present during cell replication, a suggestion verified by X-ray damaged cells producing the unstable fragile sites (see text). The cancer-importance for therapy is recognition of cell cycle change for the 4n derivative fitness-gained, diploid progeny cells. An open question is whether RB controlling G1 to S-period is mutated at this suggested tumorigenesis initiating phase, and if so, with what consequences for therapy. The fragile site studies further showed that repair of repetitive DNAs could produce two types of genomic changes: single gene mutations and CNVs, which were here shown to be chromosomally located on “borders” to repairing satellite lesions. This genomic placement was found to correspond to mutations identified in tumor sequencing (p53, Rb, MYC), favoring a bad luck location for their cancer “mutational nature”. The CNVs in cancers, are here seen as molecular expressions of long-known cytogenetic HSRs and DMs also with demonstrated origin from amplifications of single genes. Over-expression of oncogenes was hinted of being from duplications, but Drosophila genetics demonstrated the opposite, gene inactivation. The reduced eye-size from dominant, BAR-Ultra-Bar-eye phenotypes, was caused by duplications, inactivating the genetic system for eye-size. The finding of CNVs showing “evasion” of the immune system suggests, inactivation of immune-determining genetics. Since mutated genes on borders to satellite DNAs are a fact in hematological cancers, the 4n-skewed division-system is suggested to replace

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