Hylauronic acid (HA) is used as a viscoelastic in Ophthalmology during cataract surgery based on its high viscosity at rest, its ability to shear thin and dissipate energy during phacoemulsification. However, these properties of HA solutions would make them susceptible to migration when used as dermal filler materials. In this study, we apply a new technique termed vibrational optical coherence tomography (VOCT) to compare the physical properties of different HA solutions and fillers used in facial aesthetics. Results presented in this study suggest that HA solutions and HA dermal fillers have markedly different physical properties. HA solutions are highly viscoelastic with high % viscous losses while fillers tend to have lower viscous energy dissipation properties. Clinical observations suggest that the high loss fillers are injected more superficially in the face where tension and internal and external forces are more likely minimized giving tissue of the hands and lips more volume and allowing more natural movement. In contrast, the lower loss gels that are used to lift tissue, generally have a higher G’, and are injected deeper into the face where injection and internal forces are likely to be higher. It is concluded that HA filler gel design can be optimized by use of VOCT to evaluate the % viscous energy loss both in vitro and in vivo.
Greene, J.J. and Sidle, D.M. (2015) The Hyaluronic Acid Fillers Current Understanding of the Tissue Device Interface. Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America, 23, 423-432. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsc.2015.07.002
Urdiales-Gálvez, F., Escoda Delgado, N., Figueiredo, V., Lajo-Plaza, J.V., Mira, M., Mar Mira, Ortíz-Martí, F., del Rio-Reyes, R., Romero-á lvarez, N., Ruiz del Cueto, S., Martía A. Segurado, M.A. and Villanueva Rebenaque, C. (2017) Preventing the Complications Associated with the Use of Dermal Fillers in Facial Aesthetic Procedures: An Expert Group Consensus Report. Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 41, 667-677. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00266-017-0798-y
Shah, R., Pierce, M.C. and Silver, F.H. (2017) A Method for Non-Destructive Mechanical Testing of Tissues and Implants. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 105, 5-22. https://doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.35859
Shah, R.G., DeVore, D. and Silver, F.H. (2018). Biomechanical Analysis of Decellularized Dermis and Skin: Initial in Vivo Observations Using OCT and Vibrational Analysis. JJournal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 106. https://doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.36344
Silver, F.H., DeVore, D. and Shah, R. (2017) Biochemical, Biophysical and Mechanical Characterization of Decellularized Dermal Implants. Material Sciences and Applications, 8, 873-888. https://doi.org/10.4236/msa.2017.812064
Silver, F.H. and Shah, R.G. (2018) Mechanical Spectroscopy and Imaging of Skin Components in Vivo: Assignment of the Observed Moduli. Skin Research and Technology, 25. https://doi.org/10.1111/srt.12594
Silver, F.H., Shah, R.G., Benedetto, D., Dulur, A. and Kirn, T. (2019) Virtual Biopsy and Physical Characterization of Tissues, Biofilms, Implants and Viscoelastic Liquids Using Vibrational Optical Coherence Tomography. World Journal Mechanics, 9, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.4236/wjm.2019.91001