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Geriatric Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Emergency in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital, Ado Ekiti

DOI: 10.4236/ijohns.2019.83009, PP. 81-90

Keywords: Emergency, Geriatric, Head, Neck, Otorhinolaryngology

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Abstract:

Background: Issues of geriatric otolaryngologic emergency have not been widely applied despite an increase in the geriatric population. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, sociodemographic features, etiology, clinical features, complications and sources of referral of geriatric otorhinolaryngological, head and neck emergency in our center. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective hospital-based study of geriatric otorhinolaryngology emergency in the Ear, Nose and Throat Department of Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital. The study was carried out between October 2016 and September 2018. Data were obtained by using a pretested interviewers questionnaire. All data were collated and analyzed using SPSS version 18.0. The data were expressed by frequency table, percentage, bar charts, and pie charts. Results: Geriatric otorhinolaryngology, head and neck emergency accounted for 5.3%. Major prevalence age group was 43.9% in the age group (60 - 64). There were 38.6% of males with a male to female ratio of 1:1.5. The main etiology of geriatric otorhinolaryngology emergency was 29.5% trauma/road traffic accident/foreign body impaction and 25.8% tumor. Main anatomical distribution of geriatric otorhinolaryngology emergency was 38.6% throat diseases and 31.1% ear diseases. The most frequent clinical features were the pain in 27.3%, hearing loss in 21.2%, tinnitus in 15.9%, bleeding in 14.4%, difficulty breathing in 12.9% and discharge in 11.4%. Common diagnosis in this study was 15.9% sinonasal tumor, 14.4% upper aerodigestive foreign body impaction, 10.6% earwax impaction and 19.8% otitis externa. Acute presentation (<13 weeks) occurred in 1 week in 74.2% and 2 - 13 weeks in 19.7%. Commonest time of presentation was daytime in 65.9%. Major sources of referral were 43.2% general practitioner and 31.1% casualty officers. Presentation of geriatric otorhinolaryngology emergency was mainly ear, nose and throat clinic in 59.8% with accident and emergency in 28.8%. Commonest associated comorbid illnesses among the geriatric patients were 18.2% hypertension, 14.4% arthritis, and 9.8% diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: Geriatric otorhinolaryngological emergency is a common pathology associated with comorbid illnesses. Detailed clinical assessment is mandatory for effective management outcome.

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