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-  2018 

花棒生理生态研究及其展望
Research of Huabang(Hedysarum scoparium)Ecophysiology and Its Perspectives

DOI: 10.7606/j.issn.1004-1389.2018.11.002

Keywords: 花棒 沙生灌木 耐逆性 固沙造林 育种基地
Hedysarum scoparium Sandy shrub Stress tolerance Sand-fixation afforestation Breeding base

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Abstract:

花棒(Hedysarum scoparium Fish. Et Mey.),又名细枝岩黄耆,沙漠中豆科大灌木,固沙先锋植物,种子可食,嫩枝叶是优良饲草,对沙区生态建设与绿色发展具有重要意义。生理生态学研究揭示了花棒对沙漠环境的适应性机理,为其固沙造林和引种驯化提供了理论依据。近年来,花棒生理生态学研究取得了较大进展,在种子萌发方面,探明了果荚对“部分休眠”的物理限制作用、萌发所需环境条件、飞播及育苗的最佳时间;在生长发育发面,揭示了生长发育规律、繁殖策略、根际微生物及根瘤菌的促生作用;在耐逆性方面,发现了耐风蚀沙埋独特的克隆生长构型、C4途径生化亚型、耐旱光合生理及水分关系;在固沙造林方面,根据其生理生态学基础,提出了不同区域的合理布局和适宜密度,建立了固沙造林的成功案例。然而,花棒造林还存在一些问题,如耐盐性不够强、有病虫危害、易烂根等。针对这些问题,需要开展相应的生理机制和遗传育种研究,建立种质资源库,培育耐盐抗病虫害品种。花棒生理生态学进一步研究:比较不同沙区花棒的代谢组、转录组、基因组等组学特征,结合地理学和分子遗传学分析,揭示花棒在我国沙漠的进化历程。此外,花棒在沙区畜牧业、城镇园林绿化、食品与食用油等方面的开发利用研究亦具有广阔前景。
Huabang(Hedysarum scoparium Fish. Et Mey.)is a large leguminous shrub in sandy desert in China. It is a sand-fixation pioneer with edible seeds and newly growing shoots used for forage.H.scoparium is of great significance for ecological construction and green development in desert region. Ecophysiological research has revealed the adaptation mechanisms of huabang to sandy desert environment,which provides theoretical base for sand-fixation afforestation and domestication. Recently,huabang ecophysiological research has achieved great progresses.In seed germination,the physical limitation of pod on partial dormancy,the environmental conditions require for germination,and the time for aerial seeding and seedling nursery are verified. In growth and development,the characteristics of growth and development,reproductive strategies,and the growth promotion of rhizosphere microorganism and nodule bacteria are revealed. In stress tolerance,specific clone-growth patterns against sand erosion and bury,biochemical subtypes of C4 pathway,and drought-tolerance photosynthesis physiology and water relations are discovered. In sand-fixation afforestation,based on ecophysiological research,rational pattern and suitable density are proposed; some successful cases of sand-fixation afforestation are established. However,some problems remains for the sand-fixation afforestation,such as salt stress,insect and diseases damage,and root rot. To solve these problems,research of its physiological mechanisms and breeding are required; the establishment of huabang genetic bank and varieties with salt and biotic tolerance are needed. For further ecophysiological researches,the comparisons of metabolome,transcriptome,and genome of huabang from different sandy regions should be conducted; the evolution process of huabang in Chinese sandy desert should be revealed by the combination of ecophysiology with geography and molecular genetics. In addition,huabang has a great potential in developmental research on animal husbandry in sandy

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