针对传统乡村社区的性质与特征，学界先后提出过“村落共同体”“宗族共同体”以及“市场共同体”几种不同的界说。虽然这些观点也注意到村落的开放性尤其是“基层市场共同体”的联系，但主要是采取一种整体性和静态的视角，将乡村视作一种相对封闭和自治体。晚清以降，随着国家政权建设的启动，域外因素日益介入乡村治理，加剧了乡村官僚化和行政化趋势。在国家整合及一体化建设过程中，人们试图通过经济、政治手段改造乡村社区，在部分实现国家治理目标的同时，在实践中也造成一定程度的危害及后果。新时期农村社区建设应走“服务嵌入”之路，通过"服务下乡"重塑居民对社区的认同和归属感，构建"管理有序、服务完善、文明祥和"的社会生活共同体。 For the nature and characteristics of Chinese traditional rural community, scholars have proposed several different definitions such as “village community” “clan community” and “market community”. Although these views above have recognized the openness of the village, especially the link among different “market communities”, they mainly take a holistic and static perspective which regard the village as a relatively closed and autonomous body. From the late Qing Dynasty, with the start of construction of State Power, external forces increasingly involved in rural governance, which exacerbated the bureaucratic and administrative trend of the countryside. Afterwards, in the process of State integration, people tried to transform rural community through economic and political means, partly achieved the goal of State governance whilst caused some disasters in practice. Therefore, the construction of rural community in a new era should follow the “service embedded”road, to revitalize the residents’ identity to rural community and rebuild a social life community characterized by “orderly management, perfect service, civilized and harmonious environment”.