对青海乡域4所典型中小学校10间教室冬季室内温湿度、风速、黑球温度等热环境参数进行现场测试，同时对420余名青少年学生的衣着情况、热感觉评价等进行了主观问卷调查。对测试和调查结果进行统计分析，得到实测和预测热中性温度分别为13.8和14.5℃，热期望温度为16.2℃，90%的学生感到满意的舒适温度范围为15.8~18.7℃。在当地寒冷的气候条件、学生衣着习惯、心理期望及生理特性等因素影响下，中小学生形成了对偏冷环境的适应性，提出可利用适应性PMV模型（aPMV）对中小学生平均热感觉进行准确预测。可为乡域中小学教室冬季热环境设计提供依据。 The subjective questionnaires were conducted on dressing condition and thermal sensation for more than 420 students of 10 classrooms in 4 rural primary and secondary schools in Qinghai. At the same time, the indoor and outdoor parameters were measured, such as temperature and relative humidity, air speed and globe temperature etc. The results showed that the measured and predicted thermal neutral temperature were 13.8℃ and 14.5℃, respectively. The preferred temperature was 16.2℃, and the thermal comfort temperature range accepted by 90% students was 15.8℃~18.7℃. Students had the adaptability to partial cold environment under the facts of cold climate conditions, dressing habit, psychological expectation and physical characters. Adaptive PMV model (aPMV) was proposed to predict students' mean thermal Sensation. It could provide basis for the design of indoor environment in rural primary and secondary classrooms in winter.