为探究不同小麦品种（73个农家品种和31个育成品种）的抗条锈性和遗传多样性，在苗期对小麦品种接种条锈菌生理小种CYR32和CYR34进行抗性鉴定，并利用SSR分子标记技术进行遗传多样性分析。结果表明，在苗期抗性鉴定中，对于生理小种CYR32，有5个农家品种白大头、红洋辣子、老兰麦、红剑条和竹叶青（白）以及2个育成品种品冬904054-6和品冬904024表现近免疫；对于生理小种CYR34，有2个农家品种白芒麦和老兰麦以及2个育成品种品冬904024和晋79K214表现近免疫；对比农家品种与育成品种的抗性鉴定结果，发现对于生理小种CYR32，农家品种的抗性水平明显高于育成品种，而对于生理小种CYR34，育成品种的抗性水平高于农家品种。在遗传多样性分析中，104个品种的遗传相似系数变异范围在0.32~0.98之间，平均为0.65，但小麦品种遗传相似系数在来源地之间明显差异。通过聚类分析发现，农家品种亲缘关系与来源地相关性较低，而育成品种的亲缘关系与来源地存在一定的相关性。因此，在品种改良过程中应引用不同类群的优质亲本，拓宽小麦育种的遗传基础，充分利用优质野生资源，适当搭配，选育更多小麦优良品种。 In order to investigate the resistance of 104 different wheat varieties to stripe rust, including 73 landraces and 31 productive cultivars, the rust-resistance was identified in seedlings with inoculating CYR32 and CYR34, and their genetic diversity was analyzed with SSR molecular markers. The results showed that five landraces(Baidatou, Hongyanglazi, Laolanmai, Hongjiantiao, Zhuyeqing(white)) and two productive cultivars(Pindong 904054-6 and Pindong 904024) were near immunity to CYR32, and two landraces(Baimangmai and Laolanmai) and two productive cultivars(Pindong 904024 and Jin 79K214) were near immunity to CYR34. In comparison, the resistance level of the landraces to CYR32 was higher than that of the productive cultivars, while the resistance level of the productive cultivars to CYR34 was higher than that of the landraces. The results of genetic diversity analysis showed that the variation of genetic similarity coefficient among 104 wheat varieties was 0.32-0.98, with an average of 0.65. However, there was no significant difference in the genetic similarity coefficients between different regions. It was found by cluster analysis that the genetic relationships of the landraces were not correlated with their regions, while those of the productive cultivars were closely related to the region. Therefore, the high-quality parents from different groups should be applied in the process of breed improvement, which can broaden the genetic basis of wheat breeding, make full use of high-quality wild resources and breed more excellent wheat varieties.