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-  2017 

地膜机械化技术现状及分析
Current status of and analysis on the mechanical technology of plastic film

Keywords: 地膜 机械化技术 铺膜播种 残膜回收
plastic film mechanization technology membrane planter residual plastic film collecting

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Abstract:

系统梳理我国地膜机械化技术研究成果,以覆膜播种与残膜回收两大类典型机具为对象,分析对比其结构特征及工作原理,总结剖析当前地膜机械化技术中存在的问题。结果表明:在地膜覆盖机械化技术中,主要存在因苗膜错位、覆土不均、打孔成穴机构不可靠造成的空穴率高、出苗率低等问题。在机械收膜方面存在的主要问题是:地膜厚度小、强度差,增加了机具作业难度;现有机具的适配性单一,核心工作部件的可靠性不高,并且机收成堆(条)的地膜转运困难,后续处理工艺不完善,降低了农户的积极性。针对现有问题提出如下解决措施:1)研究人员在设计覆膜机具和残膜回收机具时应当与农艺相结合,改善机具作业效果及自身可靠性;2)提高我国农用塑料地膜质量,加快可降解地膜的研制。综上,加快研发优质可靠的覆膜、收膜机械是拓宽覆膜种植技术应用领域、提高覆膜地区机械化水平的重要保障。
Researches on the domestic mechanization of plastic film collection were systematically summarized in this study.The structure characteristics and working principle of two typical machines (plastic film mulching planter and collecting machine) were analyzed and compared in detail,and the existing problems in the current applied technology of plastic film mechanization were summarized and dissected.The major problems in plastic film mulching mechanical technology are high cavity rate and low emergency rate caused by the dislocation between seedling and plastic film and the uneven of soil covering and unreliable dibbling mechanism.Generally,two problems should be emphasized in mechanically collecting plastic film:Firstly,the film is too thin and the poor strength of current used plastic film increased operation difficulty in using machine.Secondly,the single suitability of existing machine and low reliability of key working component causes difficulty in transporting of strip residual plastic film collected by machine and incomplete follow-up treatment reduced farmers' enthusiasm.Corresponding solutions were proposed to solve these problems:1) To improve the working effect and reliability of machine,design of plastic film mulching planter and collecting machine should reference to agronomic requirements;2) Improve the quality of agricultural plastic film and accelerate the development of biodegradable film.In conclusion,research on and development of the plastic film mulching machine and collecting machine of better quality and higher reliability are important guarantees to broaden the application field of plastic film mulching technology and improve the level of mechanization.

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