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半工半耕:一个农村社会学的中层概念――与兼业概念相比较

Keywords: 半工半耕, 兼业, 中层概念, 农村社会学

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Abstract:

半工半耕是农村社会学的中层概念,其概念形成有一定的理论渊源,作为描述和解释转型期农村社会结构的概念,具有独特的理论价值。半工半耕是农村社会学和农业经济学交叉的概念,这一概念源于对“谁是农民”问题的追问,在具体语境下又源于农户兼业经营的社会学分析,是具有厚重经验基础的理论概念。半工半耕揭示了工业化和城市化背景下中国农村社会结构变迁的机制和趋势,在重要的农村、农民和农业问题上均能够形成独特的理论判断,这是兼业概念不能完成的。从目前研究的趋势看,半工半耕有望成为社会学本土化的一个基本概念,为认识转型期中国农村社会、农民阶层和农户生计等问题提供基本框架,有助于推动解决“三农”问题。
Half work and half farming is the middle-level concept in rural sociology, which has a certain the-oretical origin as well as great application value. Half work and half farming, as an inter-disciplinary concept between rural sociology and agricultural economics, is derived from the discussion about ‘who are farmers’ and, in the specific context, from the social analysis of farm households engaging diversi-fied businesses, and hence is a theoretical concept with heavy empirical basis. As an important explana-tory concept, it reveals the mechanism and trend of rural social structure changes in China in the back-ground of industrialization and urbanization. It is also conducive to forming a unique theory of judgment relating to important rural, farmers and agricultural issues, which cannot be properly resolved solely with the concept of mixed farming. From the current research trends, half work and half farming is expec-ted to become a basic concept of the localization of sociology, like the concept of acquaintance society

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