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-  2016 

胙土命氏:汉魏士族形成史论

Keywords: 胙土命氏,先秦,汉魏,士族,祖先记忆
awarding land and surnames
,ancient times,Han and Wei Dynasties,aristocratic families,ancestral memory

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Abstract:

先秦氏族并未因秦汉帝国的持续打击而彻底消亡。秦汉政府采取的主要手段是强迁和离散大族,并任命酷吏弹压地方豪杰。这些举措并未奏效:六国贵胄的后裔以另一种形象继续活跃于两汉社会。汲黯家族在两百年间“世为卿大夫”具有典型性。汉代史传和碑志中的祖先书写清晰说明,两汉士族与先秦氏族渊源颇深,具有非常强烈的血缘认同。东汉人物列传和相关碑志频繁出现“世为著姓”、“代为名族”等显示了贵族主义的语辞和表达。六朝史家在撰述史传中的士族谱系时,富有“实用理性”精神,和碑志作者关于士族祖先的“漫天想象”有所不同。两汉大族关于祖先记忆的模式,成为魏晋以降士大夫构建家族谱系的源头活水。《新唐书·宰相世系表》中的若干史料与汉代碑志或史传出于同一史源,其谱系构建和命氏方式的情况,反映了先秦氏族、汉魏士族与唐代贵族之间持续不断的发展逻辑,也可视作两汉士人祖先记忆、甚至是上古氏族“胙土命氏”观念在唐宋时期的层累和投影。中古政治社会的精英阶层呈现一脉相承、波动发展和代际更新的复杂面相。中古士族研究的继续深入亟须进行长时段的综合考察,打破人为切割的断代史藩篱。
Abstract:The aristocracy of the ancient times did not perish completely after continual attacks of the Qin and Han governments, which dealt with the former aristocratic families in many ways, such as migration, dispersion, and appointing the cruel officials to control the regional elites. Nevertheless, such means did not work. The descendants of the aristocratic families continued to be active in the Han Dynasty. It was typical of Ji An's (汲黯) family which produced many people to attain high office in two centuries. The way of ancestry writing in biographies and inscriptions implied the close connection of the aristocratic families between the Han Dynasty and ancient times. There were so many words in the biographies and inscriptions in the Later Han Dynasty, such as “each generation was always famous”(世为著姓), to represent aristocratism. The historians of the Six Dynasties had the pragmatic tradition in describing the genealogies of aristocratic families in the biographies, which was different from the writers of inscriptions with the super-imagination. The Wei and Jin Dynasties saw the influences of ancestry writing in the Han Dynasty. Some materials in the genealogical lists of “Tang Chief Ministers” of Xin Tang Shu and the inscriptions in the the Han Dynasty had the same sources, which reflected the lasting development and also could be regarded as the projection of ancestral memory of the Han Dynasty, even the concept of “awarding land and surnames”(胙土命氏) in ancient times. There were complex characters of the elites in medieval China, such as the same origin, fluctuate development and frequent renewal. It was necessary for us to study the aristocratic families by the means of comprehensive investigation during long periods and to break the barriers of dynastic history.

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