目的 了解绵阳市育龄期妇女乙型肝炎病毒表面抗原（HBsAg)与表面抗体（HBsAb)的双阴分布现况，为制定育龄期妇女乙肝控制策略提供科学依据。方法 采用多阶段随机抽样方法，抽取绵阳市62 551名15~49 岁妇女作为研究对象，对所有研究对象进行问卷调查并采集其血标本，采用酶联免疫吸附试验（ELISA）对血清中HBsAg和HBsAb进行检测，HBsAg和HBsAb检测结果均为阴性判定为易感。结果 共62 035名育龄期妇女纳入分析，检测出HBV易感者共28 460名，双阴率为45.88%；15~20岁组HBV表面抗原抗体的双阴性最低；汉族HBV表面抗原抗体的双阴性高于其他民族；农村人口HBV表面抗原抗体的双阴性高于城市人口；丧偶/离异HBV表面抗原抗体的双阴性最高，已婚HBV表面抗原抗体的双阴性最低；农民HBV表面抗原抗体的双阴性最高，医务人员HBV表面抗原抗体的双阴性最低；有乙肝家族史育龄期妇女易感性低于无乙肝家族史者；有乙肝接种史者易感性低于无乙肝接种史者，差异均有统计学意义（ P<0.005）。结论 绵阳市育龄期妇女HBV表面抗原抗体的双阴性较高，应加强对其HBV 易感性的监测和接种乙肝疫苗，以减少乙肝母婴传播的概率。Objective To investigate the distribution of women with negative HBsAg and HBsAb at child-bearing age in Mianyang. Methods A total of 62 551 women aged 15-49 yr. were selected randomly using a multistage sampling strategy in Mianyang to participate in a questionnaire survey. Blood samples were collected during the survey. HBsAg and HBsAb were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Those who were both HBsAg and HBsAb negative were deemed as susceptible to future infection of HBV. Results Data from 62 035 participants were valid for analysis: 28 460 (45.88%) were both HBsAg and HBsAb negative. Those aged 15-20 yr. had the lowest negative rate. Higher HBsAg and HBsAb negative rates were found in Han (lowest in Tibetan), rural residents, widowed/divorced (lowest in married), peasants (lowest in medical workers), those with a family history of Hepatitis B and without vaccination ( P<0.005). Conclusion A high proportion of women at child-bearing age in Mianyang was found to be HBsAg and HBsAb negative. They should be monitored and vaccinated as a priority population in the prevention of mother-to-children infection of hepatitis B.