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-  2015 

Research progresses of exosomes for diagnosis and treatment of central nervous system diseases

DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1674-8115.2015.11.026

Keywords: 外泌体,中枢神经系统,miRNA,基因治疗,
,central nervous system,miRNA,gene therapy

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外泌体是细胞内的多囊泡体与细胞质膜融合后主动分泌到细胞外的一种大小在30~100 nm的小囊泡。外泌体内含有脂质、蛋白质、miRNA等活性物质,可通过与靶细胞受体结合或水平转移内含物发挥生物学功能。外泌体作为一种新型的细胞间交流方式,在中枢神经系统参与形成神经元—胶质信号网络。脑细胞及干细胞分泌的外泌体在中枢神经系统疾病的发病及损伤修复机制中起着重要的调控作用。大量研究显示外泌体不仅可作为生物学标志物,同时具有良好的治疗潜能。本文着重阐述外泌体的一般特性、功能及其在中枢神经系统疾病诊治中的研究进展。
: Exosomes are 30-100nm vesicles secreted automatically from multivesicular bodies into extracellular environment after multivesicular bodies fusing with plasma membrane. Enriched of bioactive substances such as lipid, protein and miRNA, exosomes exert various biological functions by binding to the receptor of target cells or through horizontal transfer of contents. As a novel way of cell-cell communication, exosomes may mediate inter-neuronal signaling through the neuro-glia interaction in central nervous system (CNS). Exosomes secreted by brain cells and stem cells play an important regulatory role in pathogenesis and damage repair mechanism of CNS diseases. Abundant researches have proven that exosomes can be regarded as biomarkers and have good potential for treatment. This paper reviews general characteristics and functions of exosomes, as well as research progresses of exosomes for diagnosis and treatment of CNS diseases


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