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Seasonal Variations in Groundwater of the Phreatic Aquiferous Formations in Douala City-Cameroon: Hydrogeochemistry and Water Quality

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105328, PP. 1-26

Keywords: Groundwater, Hydrogeochemistry, Seasonal Variations, Water Quality, Douala-Cameroon

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This study was to determine the seasonal variations of groundwater, the influence of the rock formations on the groundwater solute chemistry and groundwater domestic-agro-industrial quality using hydrogeochemical tools and physicochemical parameters; Ionic ratios, Gibbs diagrams, Piper diagrams, Durov diagrams and water quality indices. From physicochemical parameters; in the rainy season, pH ranged from, 4.6-7.1; EC, 0.023-1.63 mS/cm; Temperature, 26.3-290C andTDS, 0.015-1.09 mg/L and in the dry season pH ranged from 5-7.2; EC, 0.01-1.61 mS/cm; Temperature, 24.4-29.50C andTDS, 0.01-1.08 mg/L. Forty groundwater samples; 20 per season, wet and dry were analysed. Themajor ions fell below WHO acceptable limits for both seasons. The sequences of abundance of major ions were, Ca2 >K >Mg2 >NH4 >Na , HCO3->Cl->SO42->NO3->HPO42- in wet season and Ca2 >Mg2 >K >Na >NH4 , HCO3->Cl->SO42->HPO42->NO3- in dry season. Ion-exchange, simple dissolution and uncommon dissolution processes determined groundwater character. Groundwater ionic content was as a result of ion exchange from rock-weathering. Water types are; MgCl and MgHCO3 in both seasons. Hydrogeochemical facies are; Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4, characteristic of groundwater some distance along its flow path and Ca-Mg-HCO3, characteristic of freshly recharged groundwater from precipitation. The groundwater indices of; Sodium Percent (% Na), Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) , Kelley’s ratio (KR), Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), USSL? and Wilcox index were determined, evaluated and found to be suitable for agro-industrial uses in all seasons. Permeability Index (PI) , Water quality index (WQI) and Magnesium Adsorption Ratio (MAR) were not suitable in some areas and in some seasons.


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