No single factor has yet emerged to date in the literature on personality, and it is unlikely that one will ever be found given the diversity of traits subsumed under the category of personality. We hypothesized that experiences of crisis, exploration, and commitment in athletic and daily life events affect personality. This study examined the relationship between experiences of athletic and daily life and personality in Japanese senior high school students by using multiple regression analysis. We had senior high school students (189 males and 118 females) complete a questionnaire assessing their experiences of crisis, exploration, and commitment on four issues (Teammates, Authority Figures, Competition Results, Contest Continuation) in the athletic domain, and on six issues (Study, Future Courses, Values, Family, Opposite Sex Friends, Same Sex Friends) in the daily life domain. Our results reveal that, there are significant models for factors of Extraversion and Neuroticism in males with less than 10 years of experience; for males with over 10 years of experience, there were significant models for factors of Neuroticism. Moreover, for males with less than 10 years of experience, there were significant relationships between personality with regards to exploration in the athletic domain and daily life domain; for males with over 10 years of experience, there were significant relationships between personality with regards to commitment in the athletic domain, crisis, and commitment in the daily life domain. For females with less than 10 years of experience, there was no significant difference; for females with over 10 years of experience, there were significant relationships between personality with regards to crisis in the athletic domain. Thus, there was a more significant relationship between various experiences and personality in males than females. Similar to previous research examining personality, this study highlights the importance of including experiences of crisis, exploration, and commitment when taking part in sports activity.
Chowdhury, D. (2012). Examining Rea Sons for Participation in Sport and Exercise Using the Physical Activity and Leisure Motivation Scale (P ALMS). Doctoral Dissertation, Melbourne: Victoria University.
Egli, T., Bland, H. W., Melton, B. F., & Czech, D. R. (2011). Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on college Students’ Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity. Journal of American College Health, 59, 399-406. https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2010.513074
Farrington, C. A., Roderick, M., Allensworth, E., Nagaoka, J., Keyes, T. S., Johnson, D. W. et al. (2012). Teaching Adolescents to Become Learners: The Role of Noncognitive Factors in Shaping School Performance. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Consortium on Chicago School Research.
Heckman, J. J., Stixrud, J., & Urzua, S. (2006). The Effects of Cognitive and Noncognitive Abilities on Labor Market Outcomes and Social Behavior. Journal of Labor Economics, 24, 411-482. https://doi.org/10.1086/504455
Ikesako, H., & Miyamoto, K. (2015). Fostering Social and Emotional Skills through Families, Schools and Communities: Summary of International Evidence and Implication for Japan’s Educational Practices and Research. OECD Education Working Papers 121, OECD Publishing.
Kelder, S., Hoelscher, D. M., Barroso, C. S., Walker, J. L., Cribb, P., & Hu, S. (2005). The CATCH Kids Club: A Pilot After-School Study for Improving Elementary Students’ Nutrition and Physical Activity. Public Health Nutrition, 8, 133-140. https://doi.org/10.1079/PHN2004678
Mendez, I. (2015). The Effect of the Intergenerational Transmission of Noncognitive Skills on Student Performance. Economics of Education Review, 46, 78-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2015.03.001
Molanorouzi, K., Khoo, S., & Morris, T. (2015). Motives for Adult Participation in Physical Activity: Type of Activity, Age, and Gender. BMC Public Health, 15, 66. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1429-7
Namikawa, T., Tani, I., Wakita, T., Kumagai, R., Nakane, A., & Noguchi, H. (2012). Development of a Short Form of the Japanese Big-Five Scale, and a Test of Its Reliability and Validity. The Japanese Journal of Psychology, 83, 91-99. https://doi.org/10.4992/jjpsy.83.91
Schneider, W. (2000). Giftedness, Expertise, and (Exceptional) Performance: A Developmental Perspective. In K. A. Heller, F. J. Mönks, R. J. Sternberg, & R. F. Subotnik (Eds.), International Handbook of Giftedness and Talent (pp. 165-179). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Su, X., McBride, R. E., & Xiang, P. (2015). College Students’ Achievement Goal Orientation and Motivational Regulations in Physical Activity Classes: A Test of Gender Invariance. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 34, 2-17. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2013-0151
Takenouchi, T., Taguchi, T., & Okuda, A. (2006). Personality Development in Junior and Senior High School Athletes: Focusing on Ego Development. Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences, 51, 757-771. https://doi.org/10.5432/jjpehss.51.757
Yolanda, D., Fiona, G., Thomas, L., & McKenzie (2017). After-School Physical Activity Interventions on Child and Adolescent Physical Activity and Health: A Review of Reviews. Advances in Physical Education, 7, 191-216. https://doi.org/10.4236/ape.2017.72017