All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Progress in Research on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2019.92003, PP. 26-32

Keywords: Post-Traumatic, Stress Disorder, DRD2, PTSD

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


In recent years, with the increase of natural disasters, wars, and terrorist incidents, etc., there are more and more researches on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This paper bases on the definition, pathogenic mechanism and related gene research of post-traumatic stress disorder. Mechanism, reviews the research status of post-traumatic stress disorder to improve people’s understanding of post-traumatic stress disorder, and prospect for future research.


[1]  American Psychiatric Association (1980) American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Washington DC.
[2]  Do, L.L.T.N. (2011) American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development. Springer, Boston, MA, 84-85..
[3]  American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Publication.
[4]  Bremner, J.D. (2007) Neuroimaging in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Other Stress-Related Disorders. Neuroimaging Clinics of North America, 17, 523-538.
[5]  Pitman, R.K., Altman, B., Greenwald, E., et al. (1991) Psychiatric Complications during Flooding Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 52, 17-20.
[6]  Bremner, J.D., Staib, L.H., Kaloupek, D., et al. (1999) Neural Correlates of Exposure to Traumatic Pictures and Sound in Vietnam Combat Veterans with and without Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Positron Emission Tomography Study. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 806-816.
[7]  Shin, L.M., Orr, S.P., Carson, M.A., et al. (2004) Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in the Amygdala and Medial Prefrontalcortex during Traumatic Imagery in Male and Female Vietnam Veterans with PTSD. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 168-176.
[8]  Bocchio-Chiavetto, L., Miniussi, C., Zanardini, R., et al. (2008) 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met Polymorphisms and Response to rTMS Treatment in Drug Resistant Depression. Neuroscience Letters, 437, 130-134.
[9]  De Kloet, C.S., Vermetten, E., Geuze, E., et al. (2007) Elevated Plasma Corticotrophin-Releasing Hormone Levels in Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Progress in Brain Research, 167, 287-291.
[10]  Strawn, J.R. and Geracioti Jr., TD. (2008) Noradrenergic Dysfunction and the Psychopharmacology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 25, 260-271.
[11]  Li, M., Han, F. and Shi, Y.X. (2010) Experimental Study on Apoptosis of Neurons in the Locus Nucleus of Rats with PTSD. Chinese Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry, No. 1, 15-19.
[12]  Ishibashi, K., Ishii, K., Oda, K., et al. (2010) Competition between 11C-Raclopride and Endogenous Dopamine in Parkinson’s Disease. Nuclear Medicine Communications, 31, 159-166.
[13]  Nikolaus, S., Antke, C., Beu, M., et al. (2010) Cortical GABA, Striatal Dopamine and Midbrain Serotonin as the Key Players in Compulsive and Anxiety Disorders-Results from in Vivo Imaging Studies. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 21, 119-140.
[14]  Hien, D.A., Jiang, H., Campbell, A.N.C., et al. (2009) Do Treatment Improvements in PTSD Severity Affect Substance Use Outcomes? A Secondary Analysis from a Randomized Clinical Trial in NIDA’s Clinical Trials Network. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 95-101.
[15]  Waraczynski, M., Salemme, J. and Farral, B. (2010) Brain Stimulation Reward Is Affected by D2 Dopamine Receptor Manipulations in the Extended Amygdala but Not the Nucleus Accumbens. Behavioural Brain Research, 208, 626-635.
[16]  Monakhov, M., Golimbet, V., Abramova, L., et al. (2008) Association Study of Three Polymorphisms in the Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene and Schizophrenia in the Russian Population. Schizophrenia Research, 100, 302-307.
[17]  Inglis, F.M. and Moghaddam, B. (1999) Dopaminergic Innervation of the Amygdala Is Highly Responsive to Stress. Journal of Neurochemistry, 72, 1088-1094.
[18]  Wei, W. and Luo, H. (2008) Study Overview on the Etiology and Pathogenesis of Tardive Dyskinesia. Youjiang Medical Journal, 36, 624-625.
[19]  Esposito-Smythers, C., Spirito, A., Rizzo, C., et al. (2009) Associations of the DRD2 TaqIA Polymorphism with Impulsivity and Substance Use: Preliminary Results from a Clinical Sample of Adolescents. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 93, 306-312.
[20]  Segman, R.H., Cooper-Kazaz, R., Macciardi, F., et al. (2002) Association between the Dopamine Transporter Gene and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Molecular Psychiatry, 7, 903.
[21]  Klein, B., Mitchell, J., Gilson, K., et al. (2009) A Therapist-Assisted Internet-Based CBT Intervention for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Preliminary Results. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 38, 121-131.
[22]  Hou, F.S., Ting, L.I., Juan, L.I., et al. (2011) The Effects of Demographic Features on Differences in Sensitivity between PCL-C and SCL-90 Scores in a Follow-Up Study in Secondary School Students in the Wenchuan Earthquake Region. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, 24, 642-648.
[23]  Wang, Z., Tang, Y. and Shi, S. (2006) Status Quo of Domestic Research on PTSD. Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry, 18, 372-374.
[24]  Liu, Y., Garrett, M.E., Dennis, M.F., et al. (2015) An Examination of the Association between 5-HTTLPR, Combat Exposure, and PTSD Diagnosis among US Veterans. PLoS ONE, 10, e0119998.
[25]  Kimbrel, N.A., Morissette, S.B., Meyer, E.C., et al. (2015) Effect of the 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Depression, Anxiety, and Quality of Life among Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 28, 456-466.
[26]  Pietrzak, R.H., Galea, S., Southwick, S.M., et al. (2013) Examining the Relation between the Serotonin Transporter 5-HTTPLR Genotype x Trauma Exposure Interaction on a Contemporary Phenotypic Model of Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology: A Pilot Study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 148, 123-128.
[27]  Van Zuiden, M., Geuze, E., Willemen, H.L.D.M., et al. (2012) Glucocorticoid Receptor Pathway Components Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Development: A Prospective Study. Biological Psychiatry, 71, 309-316.
[28]  van Zuiden, M., Kavelaars, A., Geuze, E., et al. (2013) Predicting PTSD: Pre-Existing Vulnerabilities in Glucocorticoid-Signaling and Implications for Preventive Interventions. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 30, 12-21.
[29]  Nelson, E.C., Agrawal, A., Pergadia, M.L., et al. (2009) Association of Childhood Trauma Exposure and GABRA2 Polymorphisms with Risk of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adults. Molecular Psychiatry, 14, 234.
[30]  Freeman, T., Roca, V., Guggenheim, F., et al. (2005) Neuropsychiatric Associations of Apolipoprotein E Alleles in Subjects with Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 17, 541-543.


comments powered by Disqus