Pulmonary hypoplasia is a rare disease characterized by a defect of lung development more often unilateral. The diagnosis requires several exams to eliminate other causes of pulmonary retraction. We report two cases at the department of pneumophtisiology of the University Teaching Hospital of Point G. The first case is a young adult who was complaining of a chronic cough. Etiological investigation required several exams including spirometry and Computed tomographic scan (CT scan). After elimination of all suspected causes of pulmonary opacity, the diagnosis of pulmonary hypoplasia was retained. The second case is a 2-year-old girl who was born with congenital cardiopathy whose respiratory complications were increasing during her childhood and respiratory explorations discovered pulmonary agenesis. Pulmonary hypoplasia is rare in our medical practice, but attention must be drawn to a retractile pulmonary opacity in young age after elimination of all infectious causes in TB endemic area.
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