All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Leadership Style, Machiavellianism and Fair Play at the School: Interaction of Instructors and Students in Physical Education

DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.71012, PP. 130-146

Keywords: Leadership Style, Fair Play, Machiavellianism, Physical Education

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


In this study, correlations among physical education instructors’ leadership style and students’ fair play behaviors and Machiavellian tactics were examined. The sample consisted of 292 students (151 males, 141 females) of 10 - 15 years old from primary and secondary schools. Three types of questionnaires were completed during physical education courses. Statistically significant differences were observed in perceived instructors’ leadership style (more “autocratic” style toward male students and “democratic” toward female), antisocial behaviors by male students and pro-social behaviors by the female ones and Machiavellianism by male students. It has been found that the students of the 5th class of primary school are especially susceptible to see autocratic leadership style on their instructors and to perceive more gamesmanship, cheating, and Machiavellianism on themselves. However, the students of the 3rd class of secondary school tend to see more democratic leadership style on their instructors and to believe that they present more convention and respectfulness to their teammates. Perceived instructors’ autocratic leadership style was negatively related to students’ prosocial fair play behaviors, while it was positively related to students’ antisocial fair play behaviors and Machiavellian tactics. Moreover, leadership style could significantly predict the variables of students’ fair play behaviors and Machiavellianism. Three particular profiles have been proposed: the “bad and controlled student”, the “respectful and weak student” and the “typical autocratic instructor”. Thus, both academic and practical added value is expected to have been produced by the particular research.


[1]  Nanjundeswaraswamy, T.S. and Swamy, D.R. (2014) Leadership Styles. Advances in Management, 7, 57-62.
[2]  Iqbal, N., Anwar, S. and Haider, N. (2015) Effect of Leadership Style on Employee Performance. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 5, 1-6.
[3]  Jerome, I. (2018) An Investigation on the Nexus between Leadership Style and Job Satisfaction of Library Staff in Private University Libraries South-West, Nigeria. Library Philosophy and Practice (E-Journal). 1677.
[4]  Turman, P.D. (2001) Situational Coaching Styles: The Impact of Success and Athlete Maturity Level on Coaches’ Leadership Styles over Time. Small Group Research, 32, 576-594.
[5]  Bekiari, A. (2016) Insights into Instructors’ Verbal Aggressiveness and Students’ Machiavellianism through Leadership Style and Motivational Climate. European Scientific Journal, 12, 90-110.
[6]  Adeyemi, T.O. (2010) Principals’ Leadership Styles and Teachers’ Job Performance in Senior Secondary Schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. Journal of Education Administration and Policy Studies, 2, 83-91.
[7]  Kwon, H.H., Pyun, D. and Kim, M. (2010) Perceived Leadership Behavior of Physical Education Teacher-Coaches: When They Teach vs. When They Coach. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 29, 131-145.
[8]  Bekiari, A. (2014) Verbal Aggressiveness and Leadership Style of Sports Instructors and their Relationship with Athletes’ Intrinsic Motivation. Creative Education, 5, 114-121.
[9]  Bekiari, A. and Ntakou, V. (2018) Insights to Argumentativeness in Relation to Leadership Style and Job Satisfaction: Using Employees’ Sport Organizations as an Illustration. Open Journal of Leadership, 7, 1-18.
[10]  Bekiari, A. and Balla, K. (2017) Instructors and Students Relations: Argumentativeness, Leadership and Goal Orientations. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 5, 128-143.
[11]  Theoharis, D., Bekiari, A. and Koustelios, A. (2017) Exploration of Determinants of Verbal Aggressiveness and Leadership through Network Analysis and Conventional Statistics. Using School Class as an Illustration. Sociology Mind, 7, 27-43.
[12]  Theoharis, D. and Bekiari, A. (2016) Social Networks Analysis of Centrality: Case Study in Leadership Networks. Proceedings of the 33rd Congress Greek Mathematical Society (with International Participation), Chania, 4-6 November 2016, 250-260.
[13]  Theoharis, D. and Bekiari, A. (2017) Cumulative Hierarchy Analysis (Katz Centrality) on Leadership Networks of Learning Communities. Proceedings of the 9th International Congress Mathematical Society, Thessaloniki, 17-19 March 2017, 285-297.
[14]  Theoharis, D. and Bekiari, A. (2017) Structural Analysis of Leadership in School Class Networks. Proceedings of the 34th Congress Greek Mathematical Society, Lefkada, 271-279.
[15]  Shields, D.L.L. and Bredemeier, B.J.L. (1995) Character Development and Physical Activity. Human Kinetics Publishers, Champaign, IL, England.
[16]  Vallerand, R.J., Brière, N.M., Blanchard, C. and Provencher, P. (1997) Development and Validation of the Multidimensional Sportspersonship Orientations Scale. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 19, 197-206.
[17]  Popescu, V. and Masari, G.A. (2011) Comparative Analysis of Athletes’ Fair Play Attitude According to Specific Variables Conditioned by Sports Training and Competition. Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences, 12, 24-29.
[18]  Sullivan, C.F. (2011) Gender Verification and Gender Policies in Elite Sport: Eligibility and “Fair Play”. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 35, 400-419.
[19]  Vila, G.O., González, J.D., Martín, J.F., Guerra, J.G.F., Martín, P.J.J., Sánchez, C.J., Robles, M.A. and Miñano, M.J.C. (2016) Moral Development in Sports at School age: Towards a Fair Play Behaviours Typology Expressed in the White Card (Tarjeta Blanca) Programme. Movement & Sport Sciences—Science & Motricité, 91, 21-29.
[20]  Miura, Y. (2015) Fair Play in the Physical Education Curriculum. LASE Journal of Sport Science, 6, 77-91.
[21]  Pilz, G.A. (1995) Performance Sport: Education in Fair Play? (Some Empirical and Theoretical Remarks). International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 30, 391-418.
[22]  Göral, M. (2008) Violence and Fair Play in Sport. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, 5, 502-513.
[23]  Fernández-Río, J., Méndez-Giménez, A., Cecchini, J.A. and González de Mesa, C. (2012) Achievement Goals and Social Goals’ Influence on Physical Education Students’ Fair Play. Revista de Psicodidáctica, 17, 73-91.
[24]  Sezen-Balcikanli, G. (2009) Fair Play and Empathy: A Research Study with Student Teachers. Journal of US, 6, 79-84.
[25]  Vidoni, C. and Ulman, J.D. (2010) Fair Play Instruction during Middle School Physical Education: A Systematic Replication. Journal of Behavioral Health and Medicine, 1, 127-136.
[26]  Bekiari, A. (2017) Exploring Relations between Instructors’ Verbal Aggressiveness and Argumentativeness and Students’ Fair Play Behaviours and Machiavellianism. International Journal of Physical Education, 54, 26-39.
[27]  Walter, H.L., Anderson, C.M. and Martin, M.M. (2005) How Subortinates’ Machiavellianism and Motives Relate to Satisfaction with Superiors. Communication Quarterly, 53, 57-70.
[28]  Dahling, J.J., Whitaker, B.G. and Levy, P.E. (2009) The Development and Validation of a New Machiavellianism Scale. Journal of Management, 35, 219-257.
[29]  Mudrack, P.E. and Mason, E.S. (1995) More on the Acceptability of Workplace Behaviors of a Dubious Ethical Nature. Psychological Reports, 76, 639-648.
[30]  Christie, R. and Geis, F. (1970) Studies in Machiavellianism. Academic Press, New York.
[31]  Zagenczyk, T.J., Restubog, S.L.D., Kiewitz, C., Kiazad, K. and Tang, R.L. (2014) Psychological Contracts as a Mediator between Machiavellianism and Employee Citizenship and Deviant Behaviors. Journal of Management, 40, 1098-1122.
[32]  Vleeming, R.G. (1979) Machiavellianism: A Preliminary Review. Psychological Reports, 44, 295-310.
[33]  Bańka, A. and Orlowski, K. (2012) The Structure of the Teacher Machiavellianism Model in Social Interactions in a School Environment. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 43, 215-222.
[34]  Pilch, I. (2008) Machiavellianism, Emotional Intelligence and Social Competence: Are Machiavellians Interpersonally Skilled? Polish Psychological Bulletin, 39, 158-164.
[35]  Ali, F., Amorim, I.S. and Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2009) Empathy Deficits and Trait Emotional Intelligence in Psychopathy and Machiavellianism. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 758-762.
[36]  Dhormare, A.R. (2016) Machiavellianism and Locus of Control among Individual and Team Game Players. Epitome Journals, 2, 145-153.
[37]  Andreou, E. (2004) Bully/Victim Problems and Their Association with Machiavellianism and Self-Efficacy in Greek Primary School Children. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 297-309.
[38]  Bekiari, A. (2017) Verbally Aggressive Instructors and Machiavellian Students: Is the Socio-Communicative Style an Over-Bridging? Psychology, 8, 1437-1454.
[39]  Chelladurai, P. and Saleh, S. D. (1980) Dimensions of Leader Behavior in Sports: Development of a Leadership Scale. Journal of Sport Psychology, 2, 34-45.
[40]  Schneider, A. and Butcher, R. (2001) Ethics, Sport, and Boxing. Ethics in Sport, 357-369.
[41]  Bekiari, A. and Hasanagas, N. (2015) Verbal Aggressiveness Exploration through Complete Social Network Analysis: Using Physical Education Students’ Class as an Illustration. International Journal of Social Science Studies, 3, 30-49.
[42]  Bekiari, A. and Petanidis, D. (2016) Exploring Teachers’ Verbal Aggressiveness through Interpersonal Attraction and Students’ Intrinsic Motivation. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 4, 72-85.
[43]  Bekiari, A. and Spanou, K. (2018) Machiavellianism in Universities: Perceiving Exploitation in Student Networks. Social Networking, 7, 19-31.
[44]  Hren, D., Vujaklija, A., Ivanisevic, R., Knezevic, J., Marusic, M. and Marusic, A. (2006) Students’ Moral Reasoning, Machiavellianism and Socially Desirable Responding: Implications for Teaching Ethics and Research Integrity. Medical Education, 40, 269-277.
[45]  Gorham, J. and Christophel, D.M. (1992) Students’ Perceptions of Teacher Behaviors as Motivating and Demotivating Factors in College Classes. Communication Quarterly, 40, 239-252.
[46]  Syrmpas, I. and Bekiari, A. (2018) Differences between Leadership Style and Verbal Aggressiveness Profile of Coaches and the Satisfaction and Goal Orientation of Young Athletes. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 18, 1008-1015.
[47]  McGuire, D. and Hutchings, K. (2006) A Machiavellian Analysis of Organizational Change. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 19, 192-209.
[48]  Asadi, N. (2013) Comparison Satisfaction in Athletes of Leadership Styles in the Sport of Karate. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 4, 3888-3891.
[49]  Láng, A. and Birkás, B. (2015) Machiavellianism and Parental Attachment in Adolescence: Effect of the Relationship with Same-Sex Parents. Sage Open, 5, 1-7.
[50]  Olson, D.H. (2000) Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems. Journal of Family Therapy, 22, 144-167.
[51]  Ryumshina, L.I. (2013) Traits of the Self-Actualized Personality in the Modern Russian Politicians. Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences, 86, 396-401.
[52]  Horn, R. (2002) Coupled Movements in Voltage-Gated Ion Channels. Journal of General Physiology, 120, 449-453.
[53]  Infante, D.A. and Rancer, A.S. (1996) Argumentativeness and Verbal Aggressiveness: A Review of Recent Theory and Research. Annals of the International Communication Association, 19, 319-352.
[54]  Rancer, A.S. and Avtgis, T.A. (2014) Argumentative and Aggressive Communication: Theory, Research, and Application. 2nd Edition, Peter Lang, New York.
[55]  Mudrack, P.E., Bloodgood, J.M. and Turnley, W.H. (2012) Some Ethical Implications of Individual Competitiveness. Journal of Business Ethics, 108, 347-359.
[56]  Pan, Y. and Sparks, J.R. (2012) Predictors, Consequence, and Measurement of Ethical Judgments: Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Business Research, 65, 84-91.
[57]  Shafer, W.E. and Simmons, R.S. (2008) Social Responsibility, Machiavellianism and Tax Avoidance: A Study of Hong Kong Tax Professionals. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability, 21, 695-720.
[58]  Bekiari, A., Deliligka, S. and Hasanagas, N. (2017) Analysing Networks of Verbal Aggressiveness and Motivation. Psychology, 8, 495-515.
[59]  Bekiari, A., Deliligka, S. and Koustelios, A. (2017) Examining Relations of Aggressive Communication in Social Networks. Social Networking, 6, 38-52.
[60]  Bekiari, A. and Hasanagas, N. (2016) Suggesting Indicators of Superficiality and Purity in Verbal Aggressiveness. An Application in Adult Education Class Networks of Prisoners. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 4, 279-292.
[61]  Bekiari, Α., Hasanagas, Ν., Theoharis, D., Kefalas, Ι. and Vasilou, Α. (2015) The Role of Mathematical Object and the Educational Environment to Students’ Interpersonal Relationships: An Application of Full Social Network Analysis. Proceedings of the 32nd Congress Greek Mathematical Society (with International Participation), Kastoria, 28 October-1 November 2015, 799-812.
[62]  Bekiari, A., Nikolaidou, Z. and Hasanagas, N. (2017) Typology of Motivation and Aggression on the Basis of Social Network Variables: Examples of Complementary and Nested Behavioral Types through Conventional Statistics. Social Networking, 6, 135-147.
[63]  Bekiari, A. and Pachi, V. (2017) Insights into Bullying and Verbal Aggressiveness through Social Network Analysis. Journal of Computer and Communications, 5, 79-101.
[64]  Bekiari, A., Pachi, V. and Hasanagas, N. (2017) Investigating Bullying Determinants and Typologies with Social Network Analysis. Journal of Computer and Communications, 5, 11-27.
[65]  Bekiari, A. and Spyropoulou, S. (2016) Exploration of Verbal Aggressiveness and Interpersonal Attraction through Social Network Analysis: Using University Physical Education Class as an Illustration. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 4, 145-155.
[66]  Hasanagas, N. and Bekiari, A. (2015) Depicting Determinants and Effects of Intimacy and Verbal Aggressiveness Target through Social Network Analysis. Sociology Mind, 5, 162-175.
[67]  Hasanagas, N. and Bekiari, A. (2017) An Exploration of the Relation between Hunting and Aggressiveness: Using Inmates Networks at Prison Secondary School as an Illustration. Social Networking, 6, 19-37.
[68]  Hasanagas, N., Bekiari, A. and Vasilos, P. (2017) Friendliness to Animals and Verbal Aggressiveness to People: Using Prison Inmates Education Networks as an Illustration. Social Networking, 6, 224-238.
[69]  Theoharis, D. and Bekiari, A. (2016) The Influence of Mathematics and Learning Environment in Verbal Aggressiveness and Interpersonal Relations: A Dynamic Analysis of Social Networks. Proceedings of the 8th International Congress Mathematical Society, Thessaloniki, 30 March-3 April 2016, 415-428.
[70]  Theoharis, D. and Bekiari, A. (2017) Applying Social Network Indicators in the Analysis of Verbal Aggressiveness at the School. Journal of Computer and Communications, 5, 169-181.
[71]  Theoharis, D. and Bekiari, A. (2018) Dynamic Analysis of Verbal Aggressiveness Networks in School. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 6, 14-28.
[72]  Láng, A. and Lénárd, K. (2015) The Relation between Memories of Childhood Psychological Maltreatment and Machiavellianism. Personality and Individual Differences, 77, 81-85.
[73]  Talwar, V. and Lee, K. (2011) A Punitive Environment Fosters Children’s Dishonesty: A Natural Experiment. Child Development, 82, 1751-1758.
[74]  Locke, K.D. and Christensen, L. (2007) Re-Construing the Relational-Interdependent Self-Construal and Its Relationship with Self-Consistency. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 389-402.
[75]  Corzine, J.B. and Hozier, G.C. (2005) Exploratory Study of Machiavellianism and Bases of Social Power in Bankers. Psychological Reports, 97, 356-362.
[76]  Bereczkei, T. (2015) The Manipulative Skill: Cognitive Devices and Their Neural Correlates Underlying Machiavellian’s Decision Making. Brain and Cognition, 99, 24-31.
[77]  Cranmer, G.A. and Martin, M.M. (2015) An Examination of Aggression and Adaption Traits with Moral Foundation. Communication Research Reports, 32, 360-366.


comments powered by Disqus