All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Source Apportionment of Air Particulates in South Africa: A Review

DOI: 10.4236/acs.2019.91007, PP. 100-113

Keywords: Air Particulate, Source Apportionment, Air Pollution, South Africa, Source Categories

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Source apportionment studies are useful in understanding sources of pollution and can be used in health risk assessments to evaluate the human health impacts from air pollutants. This study reviewed and analysed available source apportionment studies of air particulate in South Africa in October 2016. Searches were performed using different databases for peer reviewed articles including Google scholar, Scopus, EbscoHost, Science Direct and National Research Foundation database. Source categories were identified and these varied depending on the sites where the research was conducted (rural, urban or remote) but biomass burning dominated. A total of 35 source apportionment records were found with the majority of studies in urban areas (60%) while industrial sites had the least number of records (17.1%). The period 2011-2016 had the highest number of records while 1990-1995 had only three publicly available studies. There is limited research on source apportionment studies of air particulate in South Africa, calling for more research in this area.


[1]  Karagulian, F., et al. (2015) Contributions to Cities’ Ambient Particulate Matter (PM): A Systematic Review of Local Source Contributions at Global Level. Atmospheric Environment, 120, 475-483.
[2]  Moja, S. and Mnisi, J. (2013) Seasonal Variations in Airborne Heavy Metals in Vanderbijlpark, South Africa. Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 5, 227-233.
[3]  Hersey, S., et al. (2015) An Overview of Regional and Local Characteristics of Aerosols in South Africa Using Satellite, Ground, and Modeling Data. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15, 4259-4278.
[4]  Olaniyan, T.A., Dalvie, M.A. and Jeebhay, M.F. (2015) Ambient Air Pollution and Childhood Asthma: A Review of South African Epidemiological Studies: Allergies in the Workplace. Current Allergy & Clinical Immunology, 28, 122-127.
[5]  Worobiec, A., et al. (2011) Air Particulate Emissions in Developing Countries: A Case Study in South Africa. Analytical Letters, 44, 1907-1924.
[6]  Nkosi, V., Wichmann, J. and Voyi, K. (2015) Chronic Respiratory Disease among the Elderly in South Africa: Any Association with Proximity to Mine Dumps? Environmental Health, 14, 33.
[7]  Ono, F.B., et al. (2012) Arsenic Bioaccessibility in a Gold Mining Area: A Health Risk Assessment for Children. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 34, 457-465.
[8]  Wright, C., et al. (2014) Risk Perceptions of Dust and Its Impacts among Communities Living in a Mining Area of the Witwatersrand, South Africa. Clean Air Journal, 24, 22-27.
[9]  Diab, R.D., et al. (2003) First measurements of tropospheric aerosol profiles above Durban using a LIDAR: research letters. South African Journal of Science, 99, 168-172.
[10]  Gupta, A., Karar, K. and Srivastava, A. (2007) Chemical Mass Balance Source Apportionment of PM 10 and TSP in Residential and Industrial Sites of an Urban Region of Kolkata, India. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 142, 279-287.
[11]  Kumar, K.R., et al. (2014) Identification and Classification of Different Aerosol Types over a Subtropical Rural Site in Mpumalanga, South Africa: Seasonal Variations as Retrieved from the AERONET Sunphotometer. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 14, 108-123.
[12]  Venter, A.D., et al. (2012) An Air Quality Assessment in the Industrialised Western Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 108, 1-10.
[13]  Carvalho, I.G., et al. (2005) Environmental Impact of Uranium Mining and Ore Processing in the Lagoa Real District, Bahia, Brazil. Environmental Science & Technology, 39, 8646-8652.
[14]  Torgoev, I., Aleshyn, U. and Havenit, H. (2002) Impact of Uranium Mining and Processing on the Environment of Mountainous Areas of Kyrgyzstan. In: Merkel B.J., Planer-Friedrich, B. and Wolkersdorfer, C., Eds., Uranium in the Aquatic Environment, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 93-98.
[15]  Ban-Weiss, G.A., et al. (2008) Long-Term Changes in Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides and Particulate Matter from On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Vehicles. Atmospheric Environment, 42, 220-232.
[16]  Hitchins, J., Morawska, L., Wolff, R. and Gilbert, D. (2000) Concentrations of Submicrometre Particles from Vehicle Emissions near a Major Road. Atmospheric Environment, 34, 51-59.
[17]  Magi, B.I., Ginoux, P., Ming, Y. and Ramaswamy, V. (2009) Evaluation of Tropical and Extratropical Southern Hemisphere African Aerosol Properties Simulated by a Climate Model. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 114, D14204
[18]  Piketh, S., Annegarn, H. and Tyson, P. (1999) Lower Tropospheric Aerosol Loadings over South Africa: The Relative Contribution of Aeolian Dust, Industrial Emissions, and Biomass Burning. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 104, 1597-1607.
[19]  Piketh, S.J., Formenti, P., Annegarn, H.J. and Tyson, P.D. (1999) Industrial Aerosol Characterisation at a Remote Site in South Africa. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 150, 350-355.
[20]  Tiitta, P., et al. (2014) Chemical Composition, Main Sources and Temporal Variability of PM1 Aerosols in Southern African Grassland. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 1909-1927.
[21]  Van Zyl, P.G., et al. (2014) Assessment of Atmospheric Trace Metals in the Western Bushveld Igneous Complex, South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 110, 1-10.
[22]  Kamunda, C., Mathuthu, M. and Madhuku, M. (2016) An Assessment of Radiological Hazards from Gold Mine Tailings in the Province of Gauteng in South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13, 138.
[23]  Wichmann, J. and Voyi, K. (2012) Ambient Air Pollution Exposure and Respiratory, Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Mortality in Cape Town, South Africa: 2001-2006. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9, 3978-4016.
[24]  Argyropoulos, G. and Samara, C. (2011) Development and Application of a Robotic Chemical Mass Balance Model for Source Apportionment of Atmospheric Particulate Matter. Environmental Modelling & Software, 26, 469-481.
[25]  Cesari, D., et al. (2016) An Inter-Comparison of PM2.5 at Urban and Urban Background Sites: Chemical Characterization and Source Apportionment. Atmospheric Research, 174, 106-119.
[26]  Karnae, S. and John, K. (2011) Source Apportionment of Fine Particulate Matter Measured in an Industrialized Coastal Urban Area of South Texas. Atmospheric Environment, 45, 3769-3776.
[27]  Viana, M., et al. (2008) Source Apportionment of Particulate Matter in Europe: A Review of Methods and Results. Journal of Aerosol Science, 39, 827-849.
[28]  Salma, I., Maenhaut, W., Cafmeyer, J., Annegarn, H.J. and Andreae, M.O. (1994) PIXE Analysis of Cascade Impactor Samples Collected at the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 85, 849-855.
[29]  Formenti, P., Annegarn, H. and Piketh, S. (1998) Time Resolved Aerosol Monitoring in the Urban Centre of Soweto. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 136, 948-954.
[30]  Conradie, E.H., et al. (2016) The Chemical Composition and Fluxes of Atmospheric Wet Deposition at Four Sites in South Africa. Atmospheric Environment, 146, 113-131.
[31]  Scorgie, Y., Kneen, M.A., Annegarn, H.J. and Burger, L. (2003) Air Pollution in the Vaal Triangle-Quantifying Source Contributions and Identifying Cost-Effective Solutions. Clean Air Journal=Tydskrif vir Skoon Lug, 13, 5-18.
[32]  Kaonga, B. and Kgabi, N.A. (2011) Investigation into Presence of Atmospheric Particulate Matter in Marikana, Mining Area in Rustenburg Town, South Africa. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 178, 213-220.
[33]  Osipovic, M., et al. (2010) Concentrations, Distributions and Critical Level Exceedance Assessment of SO2, NO2 and O3 in South Africa. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 171, 181-196.
[34]  Magi, B. (2009) Chemical Apportionment of Southern African Aerosol Mass and Optical Depth. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9, 7643-7655.
[35]  Moodley, K.G., Singh, S. and Govender, S. (2011) Passive Monitoring of Nitrogen Dioxide in Urban Air: A Case Study of Durban Metropolis, South Africa. Journal of Environmental Management, 92, 2145-2150.
[36]  Cao, J.J., et al. (2005) Characterization and Source Apportionment of Atmospheric Organic and Elemental Carbon during Fall and Winter of 2003 in Xi’an, China. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 5, 3127-3137.
[37]  Cheng, H. and Hu, Y. (2010) Isotopic Fingerprinting and Its Applications in Lead Pollution Studies in China: A Review. Environmental Pollution, 158, 1134-1146.
[38]  Chiaradia, M. and Cupelin, F. (2000) Behaviour of Airborne Lead and Temporal Variations of Its Source Effects in Geneva (Switzerland): Comparison of Anthropogenic versus Natural Processes. Atmospheric Environment, 34, 959-971.
[39]  Kristensen, L.J., Taylor, M.P. and Evans, A.J. (2016) Tracing Changes in Atmospheric Sources of Lead Contamination Using Lead Isotopic Compositions in Australian Red Wine. Chemosphere, 154, 40-47.
[40]  Monna, F., Poujol, M., Losno, R., Dominik, J., Annegarn, H. and Coetzee, H. (2006) Origin of Atmospheric Lead in Johannesburg, South Africa. Atmospheric Environment, 40, 6554-6566.
[41]  Hu, X., et al. (2014) Lead Contamination and Transfer in Urban Environmental Compartments Analyzed by Lead Levels and Isotopic Compositions. Environmental Pollution, 187, 42-48.
[42]  Bollhofer, A. and Rosman, K. (2000) Isotopic Source Signatures for Atmospheric Lead: The Southern Hemisphere. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 64, 3251-3262.
[43]  Larsen, R.K. and Baker, J.E. (2003) Source Apportionment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Urban Atmosphere: A Comparison of Three Methods. Environmental Science & Technology, 37, 1873-1881.
[44]  Abiodun, B.J., Ojumu, A.M., Jenner, S. and Ojumu, T.V. (2014) The Transport of Atmospheric NOx and HNO3 over Cape Town. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14, 559-575.
[45]  Wicking-Baird, M.C., De Villiers, M. and Dutkiewicz, R.K. (1997) Cape Town Brown Haze Study.
[46]  Engelbrecht, J.P., Swanepoel, L., Chow, J.C., Watson, J.G. and Egamia, R.T. (2002) The Comparison of Source Contributions from Residential Coal and Low-Smoke Fuels, Using CMB Modeling, in South Africa. Environmental Science & Policy, 5, 157-167.
[47]  Maenhaut, W., Salma, I., Cafmeyer, J., Annegarn, H.J. and Andreae, M.O. (1996) Regional Atmospheric Aerosol Composition and Sources in the Eastern Transvaal, South Africa, and Impact of Biomass Burning. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 101, 23631-23650.
[48]  Campbell, J.R., et al. (2003) Micropulse Lidar Observations of Tropospheric Aerosols over Northeastern South Africa during the ARREX and SAFARI 2000 Dry Season Experiments. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 108, 8497
[49]  Klausbruckner, C., Annegarn, H., Henneman, L.R.F. and Rafaj, P. (2016) A Policy Review of Synergies and Trade-Offs in South African Climate Change Mitigation and Air Pollution Control Strategies. Environmental Science & Policy, 57, 70-78.
[50]  Kirkman, G.A., Piketh, S.J., Andreae, M.O., Helas, G. and Annegarn, H.J. (2000) Distribution of Aerosols, Ozone and Carbon Monoxide over Southern Africa. South African Journal of Science, 96, 423.
[51]  Echalar, F., Gaudichet, A., Cachier, H. and Artaxo, P. (1995) Aerosol Emissions by Tropical Forest and Savanna Biomass Burning: Characteristic Trace Elements and Fluxes. Geophysical Research Letters, 22, 3039-3042.
[52]  Billmark, K.A., Swap, R.A. and Macko, S.A. (2005) Stable Isotope and GC/MS Characterization of Southern African Aerosols. South African Journal of Science, 101, 177-179.
[53]  Liu, X.D., Dong, S.P., Van Espen, P., Adams, F., Cafmeyer, J. and Maenhaut, W. (2000) Size and Chemical Characterization of Atmospheric Aerosol and Savanna Fire Samples in Southern Africa. Journal of Aerosol Science, 31, 186-187.
[54]  Piketh, S.J. and Walton, N.M. (2004) Characteristics of Atmospheric Transport of Air Pollution for Africa, in Air Pollution. Springer, New York, 173-195.
[55]  Engelbrecht, J.P., Reddy, V.S., Swanepoel, L. and Mostert, J.C. (1996) Results on the CMB7 Receptor Modelling in the Vaal Triangle. Clean Air Journal, 9, 16-24.
[56]  Feig, G. (2014) National Database of Air Quality and Meteorological Information. South African Weather Service.
[57]  Swap, R.J., et al. (2002) The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000): Overview of the Dry Season Field Campaign. South African Journal of Science, 98, 125-130.
[58]  Belis, C.A., Karaguliana, F., Larsenb B.R. and Hopkec, P.K. (2013) Critical Review and Meta-Analysis of Ambient Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Using Receptor Models in Europe. Atmospheric Environment, 69, 94-108.
[59]  Aurela, M., et al. (2016) The Composition of Ambient and Fresh Biomass Burning Aerosols at a Savannah Site, South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 112, 1-8.


comments powered by Disqus