All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

The Local Migration of Plant-Based Medicines from Rural Communities to Gral. E. Aquino, Paraguay

DOI: 10.4236/nr.2018.912027, PP. 429-447

Keywords: Seasonal Use, Importance Values, Yerba Mate, Urban/Rural, Ethnobotany

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Rural Paraguay presents interesting opportunities for investigating the subtle differences in the use of medicinal plants across seasons and the urban versus rural dichotomy in a local setting. This study investigates three aspects of plant-based medicinal use in rural Paraguay: 1) seasonal differences and 2) differences between urban and rural residents and 3) the source of medicinal plants used to treat thirteen common ailments. Interviews performed in January through March 2015 and repeated in June through August 2015 revealed small differences between seasons and between places of residence but a larger homogeneity in the two populations, a homogeneity that stems from the recent migration of urban residents from nearby rural communities. We also found that the important cultural and preventive medicinal use of plant-based additions to yerba mate contributes to the similarities between the urban and rural populations. The findings suggest the continued strength of medicinal plant use going into the near future.


[1]  Gaoue, O.G., Coe, M.A., Bond, M., Hart, G., Seyler, B.C. and McMillen, H. (2016) Theories and Major Hypotheses in Ethnobotany. Economic Botany, 71, 269-287.
[2]  Furlan, V., Kujawska, M., Hilgert, N.I. and Pochettino, M.L. (2016) To What Extent Are Medicinal Plants Shared between Country Home Gardens and Urban Ones? A Case Study from Misiones, Argentina. Pharmaceutical Biology, 54, 1628-1640.
[3]  Vandebroek, I. and Balick, M.J. (2012) Globalization and Loss of Plant Knowledge: Challenging the Paradigm. PLos ONE, 7, e37643.
[4]  Luján, M.C. and Martínez, G.J. (2017) Dinámica del Conocimiento Etnobotánico en Poblaciones Urbanas y Rurales de Córdoba (Argentina). Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, 16, 278-302.
[5]  Cerrutti, M. and Bertoncello, R. (2003) Urbanization and Internal Migration Patterns in Latin America. Centro de Estudios de Población. Buenos Aires, Argentina.
[6]  Albuquerque, U.P., Soares Silva, J., Almeida Campos, J.L., Silva Sosa, R., Silva, T.C. and Nóbrega Alves, R.R. (2013) The Current Status of Ethnobiological Research in Latin America: Gaps and Perspectives. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 9, 72-80.
[7]  Cámara-Leret, R., Paniagua-Zambrana, N., Balslev, H. and Macía, M.J. (2014) Ethnobotanical Knowledge Is Vastly Under-Documented in Northwestern South America. PLoS ONE, 9, e85794.
[8]  Benítez, B., Bertoni, S., Pérez, S. and González, F. (2008) Principales Especies Medicinales Comercializadas en los Mercados del Departamento de Paraguarí. Diversidad y Determinación de la Importancia Relativa. Rojasiana, 8, 45-61.
[9]  Degen, R., Soria, N., Ortiz, M. and Basualdo, I. (2005) Problemática de Nombres Comunes de Plantas Medicinales Comercializadas en Paraguay. Dominguezia, 21, 11-16.
[10]  González, Y., Mercado, M.I.., Degen, R. and Ponessa, G.I. (2009) Morfoanatomía y Etnobotánica de Rizoma,Ttallo y Escapo de “Kapi’i Kati”, Kyllinga odorata (Cyperaceae) y sus Sustituyentes de Asunción del Paraguay y Alrededores. Lilloa, 46, 58-67.
[11]  Li, Y. and Ohizumi, Y. (2004) Search for Constituents with Neurotrophic Factor-Potentiating Activity from the Medicinal Plants of Paraguay and Thailand. The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, 124, 417-424.
[12]  Arenas, P. (1987) Medicine and Magic among the Maka Indians of the Paraguayan Chaco. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2, 579-295.
[13]  Arenas, P. (2009) Los Estudios sobre Medicina y Farmacopea Vernácula en el Gran Chaco. Rojasiana, 8, 81-100.
[14]  Arenas P. and Giberti, G.C. (1987) The Ethnobotany of Odontocarya asarifolia (Menispermaceae), an Edible Plant from the Chaco. Economic Botany, 41, 361-369.
[15]  Ceuterick, M., Vandebroek, I., Torry, B. and Pieroni, A. (2008) Cross-Cultural Adaptation in Urban Ethnobotany: The Colombian Folk Pharmacopoeia in London. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 120, 342-359.
[16]  Ceuterick, M., Vandebroek, I. and Pieroni, A. (2011) Resilience of Andean Urban Ethnobotanies: A Comparison of Medicinal Plant Use among Bolivian and Peruvian Migrants in the United Kingdom and in Their Countries of Origin. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 136, 27-54.
[17]  de Medeiros, P.M., Soldati, G.T., Alencar, N.L., Vendebroaek, I., Pieroni, A., Hanazaki, N. and Albuquerue, U.P. (2012) The Use of Medicinal Plants by Migrant People: Adaptation, Maintenance and Replacement. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012, Article ID: 807452.
[18]  Ellena, R., Quave, C.L. and Pieroni, A. (2012) Comparative Medical Ethnobotany of the Senegalese Community Living in Turin (Northwestern Italy) and in Adeane (Southern Senegal). Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012, Article ID: 604363.
[19]  Pieroni, A., Muenz, H., Akbulut, M., Hüsnü Can Baser, K. and Durmuskahya, C. (2005) Traditional Phytotherapy and Trans-Cultural Pharmacy among Turkish Migrants Living in Cologne, Germany. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 102, 69-88.
[20]  Ramzan, S., Soelberg, J., Jager, A.K. and Cantarero-Arévalo, L. (2017) Traditional Medicine among People of Pakistani Descent in the Capital Region of Copenhagen. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 196, 267-280.
[21]  Akbulut, S. and Bayramoglu, M.M. (2014) Reflections of Socio-Economic and Demographic Structure of Urban and Rural on the Use of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: The Sample of Trabzon Province. Studies on Ethno-Medicine, 8, 89-100.
[22]  van Andel, T. and Carvalheio, L.G. (2013) Why Urban Citizens in Developing Countries Use Traditional Medicines: The Case of Suriname. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2013, Article ID: 687197.
[23]  Sogbohossou, O.E., Achigan-Dako, E.G., Komlan, F.A. and Ahanchede, A. (2015) Diversity and Differential Utilization of Amaranthus spp. along the Urban-Rural Continuum of Southern Benin. Economic Botany, 69, 9-25.
[24]  Yates, S. and Ramírez-Sosa, C.R. (2004) Ethnobotanical Knowledge of Brosimum alicastrum (Moraceae) among Urban and Rural El Salvador Adolescents. Economic Botany, 58, 72-77.[0072:EKOBAM]2.0.CO;2
[25]  Ocvirk, S., Kistler, M., Khan, S., Hayder Talukder, S. and Hauner, H. (2013) Traditional Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Diabetes in Rural and Urban Areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh—An Ethnobotanical Survey. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 9, 43.
[26]  Heck, C.I. and de Mejia, E.G. (2007) Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguariensis): A Comprehensive Review on Chemistry, Health Implications, and Technological Considerations. Journal of Food Science, 72, 138-151.
[27]  Santacruz, R. and Zárate, D. (2015) Vida de la Escuela: Gda N° 1883 Chamorro Cué Gral. E. Aquino Historia de la Comunidad Plan Anual del Director Ano: 1.995.
[28]  Hierro, M. (2013) Latin American Migration to Spain: Main Reasons and Future Perspectives. International Migration, 54, 64-83.
[29]  Parrado, E.A. and Cerrutti, M. (2003) Labor Migrating between Developing Countries: The Case of Paraguay and Argentina. International Migration Review, 37, 101-132.
[30]  Dirreción General de Estadística, Encuestas y Censos (2015) Paraguay: Proyección de la Población por Sexo y Edad, Según Distrito, 2000-2025: Revisión 2015. Dirreción General de Estadística, Encuestas y Censos, Asunción, 583 p.
[31]  International Society of Ethnobiology (2006) International Society of Ethnobiology Code of Ethics (with 2008 Additions).
[32]  Bernard, H.R. (2017) Research Methods in Anthropology. 6th Edition, Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham.
[33]  Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A.G. and Buchner, A. (2014) G*Power: Statistical Power Analysis for Windows and Mac.
[34]  Bennett, B.C. and Prance, G.T. (2000) Introduced Plants in the Indigenous Pharmacopoeia of Northern South America. Economic Botany, 54, 90-102.
[35]  Garcia, D., Domingues, M.V. and Rodriques, E. (2010) Ethnopharmacological Survey of Migrants Living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest of Diadema, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 6, 29.
[36]  Akbulut, S. (2015) Differences in the Traditional Use of Wild Plants between Rural and Urban Areas: The Sample of Adana. Studies on Ethno-Medicine, 9, 141-150.
[37]  Jiang, S. and Quave, C. (2013) A Comparison of Traditional Food and Health Strategies among Taiwanese and Chinese Immigrants in Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 9, 61.
[38]  Meissner, O. (2004) The Traditional Healer as Part of the Primary Health Care Team? South African Medical Journal, 94, 901-902.
[39]  Tabi, M.M., Powell, M. and Hodnicki, D. (2006) Use of Traditional Healers and Modern Medicine in Ghana. International Nursing Review, 53, 52-58.
[40]  Romeiras, M.M., Duarte, M.C., Indjai, B. and Catarino, L. (2012) Medicinal Plants Used to Treat Neurological Disorders in West Africa: A Case Study of Guinea-Bissau. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3, 1028-1036.
[41]  Hirschmann, G.S. and de Arias, A.R. (1990) A Survey of Medicinal Plants in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 29, 159-172.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


微信:OALib Journal