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Prevention of Harmful Algal Blooms by Control of Growth Parameters

DOI: 10.4236/abb.2018.911043, PP. 613-648

Keywords: Prevention, Harmful Algal Blooms, Control, Growth, Parameters

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Abstract:

Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) were investigated to prevent the outbreak of HAB in both freshwater and seawater. Parameters inducing HAB were volcanic eruption, sunlight, aeolian dust, environmental factors (current, pH, dissolved oxygen, food web, turbulence, growth phase), enzyme, iron, nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, silicon, minerals) while the critical growth parameter for the outbreak of HAB was iron (Fe). HAB development was halted in freshwater and seawater due to the sulfur compounds (H2S, sulfates) inducing the deficiency of the dissolved Fe in the water. The atomic ratio of N/P is commonly known to be 16/1 in freshwater and 176/1 in seawater for HAB. Therefore, nitrogen can be a relatively limiting factor in seawater while phosphorus in freshwater. HAB could be prevented by control of growth parameters such as pH, temperature, sunlight, turbulence, nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, and sulfur compounds prior to reaching the early exponential phase of algal growth.

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