Harmful Algal Blooms (HAB) were investigated to
prevent the outbreak of HAB in both freshwater and seawater. Parameters
inducing HAB were volcanic eruption, sunlight, aeolian dust, environmental
factors (current, pH, dissolved oxygen, food web, turbulence, growth phase),
enzyme, iron, nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, silicon, minerals)
while the critical growth parameter for the outbreak of HAB was iron (Fe). HAB
development was halted in freshwater and seawater due to the sulfur compounds
(H2S, sulfates) inducing the deficiency of the dissolved Fe in the
water. The atomic ratio of N/P is commonly known to be 16/1 in freshwater and
176/1 in seawater for HAB. Therefore, nitrogen can be a relatively limiting
factor in seawater while phosphorus in freshwater. HAB could be prevented by control
of growth parameters such as pH, temperature, sunlight, turbulence, nitrogen,
phosphorus, iron, and sulfur compounds prior to reaching the early exponential
phase of algal growth.
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