Change orders are common and clearly noticeable in Jordanian construction industry. Several studies have identified change orders as significant problem in Jordanian construction projects, and they mainly cause delay and cost overrun. This situation spurs the researchers for investigating the significant causes of change orders in construction projects. Thus, this paper aims to determine the main causes of change orders in the Jordanian construction private sector which responsible for significant cost overrun. Both qualitative and quantitative methods, i.e. interview and questionnaire techniques, were used to achieve this aim. Interviews were conducted as the first stage of data collection, and the results formed the basis of the questionnaire, which was distributed across the Jordanian construction sector. Content analysis was used to analyse the interview responses, while factor analysis, correlation and the Severity Index (SI) were used to analyse the questionnaire results. The findings identified three main categories of causes of change orders in private sector, namely engineering causes, causes related to the client, and circumstances of the project, with sub-causes in each category which are related to each other in significant ways and which affect each other.
Desai, J., Pitroda, J. and Bhavasar, J. (2015) Analysis of Factor Affecting Change Order in Construction Industry Using RII Method. International Journal of Modern Trends in Engineering and Research, 2, 344-347.
Charoenngam, C., Coquinco, S.T. and Hadikusumo, B.H.W. (2003) Web-Based Application for Managing Change Orders in Construction Projects. Construction Innovation, 3, 197-215. https://doi.org/10.1108/14714170310814936
Alaryan, A., Elbeltagi, E., Elshahat, A. and Dawood, M. (2014) Causes and Effects of Change Orders on Construction Projects in Kuwait. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, 1, 1-8.
Olsen, D., Killingsworth, R. and Brandon, P. (2012) Change Order Causation; Who Is the Guilty Party. 48th ASC Annual International Conference Proceedings, 1, 1-9. http://ascpro.ascweb.org/chair/paper/CPGT166002012.pdf
Perkins, R.A. (2009) Sources of Changes in Design-Build Contracts for a Governmental Owner. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 135, 588-593. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(2009)135:7(588)
Ijaola, I.A. and Iyagba, R.O. (2012) A Comparative Study of Causes of Change Orders in Public Construction Project in Nigeria and Oman. Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences, 3, 495-501.
Taylor, T.R.B., Uddin, M., Goodrum, P., McCoy, A. and Shan, Y. (2012) Change Orders and Lessons Learned: Knowledge from Statistical Analyses of Engineering Change Orders on Kentucky Highway Projects. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 138, 1360-1369. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000550
Alshdiefat, A. (2018) Developing an Assessment Model for the Adoption of Building Information Modelling to Reduce the Cost of Change Orders in the Jordanian Construction Industry. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Salford, Salford.
Sweis, G., Sweis, R., Abu Hammad, A. and Shboul, A. (2008) Delays in Construction Projects: The Case of Jordan. International Journal of Project Management, 26, 665-674. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2007.09.009
Sweis, G.J. (2013) Factors Affecting Time Overruns in Public Construction Projects: The Case of Jordan. International Journal of Business and Management, 8, 120-129. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijbm.v8n23p120
Msallam, M., Abojaradeh, M., Jrew, B. and Zaki, I. (2015) Controlling of Variation Orders in Highway Projects in Jordan. Journal of Engineering and Architecture, 3, 95-104. https://doi.org/10.15640/jea.v3n2a11
Östlund, U., Kidd, L., Wengström, Y. and Rowa-Dewar, N. (2011) Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research within Mixed Method Research Designs: A Methodological Review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 48, 369-383. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2010.10.005
Onwuegbuzie, A.J. and Leech, N.L. (2005) On Becoming a Pragmatic Researcher: Importance of Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methodologies. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 8, 375-387. https://doi.org/10.1080/13645570500402447