全部 标题 作者
关键词 摘要

Antimicrobial Activities of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. and L.M. Perry (Myrtaceae) Fruit Extracts on Six Standard Microorganisms and Their Clinical Counterpart

DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104951, PP. 1-13

Keywords: Syzygium aromaticum, Phytochemical, Antibacterial, Antifungal

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Syzygium aromaticum is used in combination with other plants as an al-coholic infusion by traditional practitioners to treat infections. It has been selected for evaluation for its antimicrobial properties to justify its use in traditional pharmacopoeia. The fruits were used as plant material while the microbial germs consisted of six reference strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, Candida albicans ATCC 35659 and their clinical counterparts. The extracts were obtained by aqueous decoction, hydroethanolic and ethanolic macerations. The phytochemical screening was performed by chemical staining tests. The antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using the well diffusion method and the MIC and MBC or MFC were determined using the 96-well microplate dilution method. The results showed that 66.67% of the strains tested were sensitive to the aqueous extract with inhibition diameters ranging from 15 to 21 mm and MIC and MCB or MFC between 0.0976 - 0.3906 mg/mL and 0.1953 - 07812 mg/mL respectively, thus determining bacteriostatic activity. 100% of the germs tested were sensitive to hydroethanolic and ethanolic extracts. The inhibition diameters range from 12 - 28 mm for hydroethanolic extract with MIC and MBC or MFC ranging from 0.0488 - 0.3906 mm and 0.0488 - 0.7812 mm respectively. The ethanolic extract gave inhibition diameters of 12 - 26 mm; MIC and MBC or MFC ranging from 0.0976 - 0.7812 mm. Hydroethanolic extract gave three (3) bactericidal/fungicidal activities compared to four (4) as for ethanolic extract. These results prove the use of S. aromaticum among traditional recipes for treating infections in the pharmacopoeia but further studies remain important to produce traditionally improved drugs.


[1]  Atchou, K., Agban, A., Batawila, K., Karou, S.D., Tchacondo, T., Amadou, S.H., de Souza, C., Gbeassor, M. and Akpagana, K. (2013) Effets antimicrobiens de Lannea kerstingii Engl. et K. Krause (Anacardiaceae). Revue Africaine de Santé et de Productions Animales, 11, 121-124.
[2]  Reji, R. and Rajasekaran, M. (2015) Evaluation of Synergistic Antimicrobial Activity of Cinnamomum zeylancium, Trachyspermum ammi and Syzygium aromaticum. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 6, 304-311.
[3]  Alharbi, A.A. (2017) Antibacterial Activities of Syzygium aromaticum Oil against Local Clinical Pathogenic bacteria. International Journal of International Studies in Sciences and Engineering Technology, 3, 7-11.
[4]  Elujoba, AA., Odeleye, O.M. and Ogunyemi, C.M. (2005) Traditional Medicine Development for Medical and Dental Primary Health Care Delivery System in Africa. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 2, 46-61.
[5]  Sulieman, A.M.E., El Boshra, I.M.O. and El Khalifa, E.A.A. (2007) Nutritive Value of Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and Detection of Antimicrobial Effect of Its Bud Oil. Research Journal of Microbiology, 2, 266-271.
[6]  Tanko, Y., Mohammed, A., Okasha, M.A., Umar, A.H. and Magaji, R.A. (2008) Anti-Nociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Ethanol Extract of Syzygium aromaticum Flower Bud in Wistar Rats and Mice. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 5, 209-212.
[7]  Miyazawa, M. and Hisama, M. (2003) Antimutagenic Activity of Phenyl Propanoides from Clove (Syzygium aromaticum). Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 5, 6413-6422.
[8]  Li, Y., Xu, C., Zhang, Q., Liu, J.Y. and Tan, R.X. (2005) In Vitro Anti-Helicobacter pylori Action of 30 Chinese Herbal Medicines Used to Treat Ulcer Diseases. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 98, 329-333.
[9]  Chaieb, K., Zmantar, T., Ksouri, R., Hajlaoui, H., Mahdouani, K., Abdelly, C. and Bakhrouf, A. (2007) Antioxidant Properties of Essential Oil of Eugenia caryophyllata and Its Antifungal Activity against a Large Number of Clinical Candida Species. Mycoses, 50, 403-406.
[10]  Saeed, S. and Tariq, P. (2008) In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Clove against Gram Negative Bacteria. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 40, 2157-2160.
[11]  Srivastava, K.C. and Malhotra, N. (1991) Acetyl Euginol, a Component of Oil of Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum L.) Inhibits Aggregation and Alters Arachidonic Acid Metabolism in Human Blood Platelets. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 42, 73-81.
[12]  Park, M.J., Gwak, K.S., Yang I., Choi, W.S., Jo, H.J., Chang, J.W., Jeung, E.B. and Choi, I.G. (2007) Antifungal Activities of the Essential Oils in Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. Et Perry and Leptospermum betersonni Bailey and Their Constituents against Various Dermatophytes. Journal of Microbiology, 45, 460-465.
[13]  Harbone, J.B. (1973) Phytochemical Methods. Chapman and Hall, New York, 354 p.
[14]  Wong, C.C., Li, H.B., Cheng, K.W. and Chen, F.A. (2006) Systematic Survey of Antioxidant Activity of 30 Chinese Medicinal Plants Using the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power Assay. Food Chemestry, 97, 705-711.
[15]  Karou, D., Dicko, M.H., Simpore, J. and Traore, A.S. (2005) Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Polyphenols from Ethnomedicinal Plants of Burkina Faso. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4, 823-828.
[16]  Kpadonou, K.B.G.H., Yayi, L.E., Kpoviessi, D.S.S., Gbaguidi, F., Yèhouénou, B., Quetin-Leclercq, J., Figueredo, G., Moudachirou, M. and Accrombessi, G.C. (2012) Chemical Variation of Essential Oil Constituents of Ocimum gratissimum L. from Benin, and Impact on Antimicrobial Properties and Toxicity against Artemia salina LEACH. Chemistry and Biodiversity, 9, 139-150.
[17]  Yehouenou, B., Ahoussi, E., Sessou, P., Alitonou, G.A., Toukourou, F. and Sohounhloue, D.C.K. (2012) Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential (EO) Extracted from Leaves of Lippia rugose A. Chev. against Foods Pathogenic and Adulterated Microorganisms. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 6, 5496-5505.
[18]  Anani, K., Adjrah, Y., Ameyapoh, Y., Karou, S.D., Agbonon, A., de Souza, C. and Gbeassor, M. (2016) Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of Jatropha multifida L. (Euphorbiaceae). Pharmacognosy Research, 8, 142-146.
[19]  Jimoh, S.O., Arowolo, L.A. and Alabi, K.A. (2017) Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Syzygium aromaticum Extract and Essential Oil. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 6, 4557-4567.
[20]  Mohamed, S.G. and Badri A.M. (2017) Antimicrobial Activity of Syzygium aromaticum and Citrus aurantifolia Essential Oils against Some Microbes in Khartoum, Sudan. EC Microbiology, 12, 253-259.
[21]  Saikumari, D., Shiva Rani, S.K. and Saxena, N. (2016) Antibacterial Activity of Syzygium aromaticum L. (Clove). International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 5, 484-489.
[22]  Suresh, P., Ingle, V.K. and Vijayalakshmi, V. (1992) Antibacterial Activity of Eugenol in Comparison with Other Antibiotics. Journal of Food Science and Tech- nology, 29, 256-257.
[23]  Tampieri, M.P., Galuppi, R., Macchioni, F., Carelle, M.S., Falcioni, L., Cioni, P.L. and Morelli, I. (2005) The Inhibition of Candida albicans by Selected Essential Oils and Their Major Components. Mycopathologia, 159, 339-345.
[24]  Usman, H. and Osuji, J.C. (2007) Phytochemical and in Vitro Antimicrobial Assay of the Leaf Extract of Newbouldia laevis. African Journal of Traditional, Comple- mentary and Alternative Medicines, 4, 476-480.
[25]  Banso, A. and Adeyemo, S.O. (2007) Evaluation of Antibacterial Properties of Tannins Isolated from Dichrostachys cinerea. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6, 1785-1787.
[26]  Akiyama, H., Fujii, K., Yamasaki, O., Oono, T. and Iwatsuki, K. (2001) Antibacterial Action of Several Tannins against Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 48, 487-491.
[27]  Aransiola, M.N., Ehikhase, C., Mmegwa, J.C. and Wahab, I.O. (2014) Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Jatropha multifida (Ogege) Sap against Some Pathogens. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, 9, 53-57.


comments powered by Disqus