All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

The Effects of Short Health Messages Intervention in Improving Knowledge and Attitude on Sexual and Reproductive Health among Late Adolescents at Colleges in Malaysia

DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2018.88019, PP. 207-228

Keywords: Adolescent, Sexual and Reproductive Health, SMS Intervention, College

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


Sexual and reproductive health problems among adolescents are increasing in trend. Inadequate knowledge of sexual and reproductive health is the main cause of problems in sexual and reproductive health. Short messages service (SMS) intervention has been implemented widely in health education and the outcomes are positive. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of mobile phone messaging in improving sexual and reproductive health among late adolescents (age 18 - 19 years old). A quasi-experimental study was conducted in two Professional Vocasional Colleges in Malaysia. A total of 116 respondents in the intervention group and 130 respondents in the control group had completed the study. There was a series of 24 messages (SMS) sent to the respondents biweekly for 12 weeks. The adolescent girls (mean knowledge score 15.90, sd ± 3.321) in the intervention group had a significantly (P = 0.007) higher mean score in knowledge of sexual and reproductive health than boys (mean knowledge score 13.87, sd ± 4.003) at post intervention. The adolescent boys (mean knowledge scores 15.35, sd ± 4.748) in the control group had a significantly (P = 0.009) higher mean score for knowledge on HIV/AIDS than girls (mean scores 13.08, sd ± 4.325) at post intervention. In the intervention group, the number of respondents with good knowledge and good attitude on HIV/AIDS increased at 3 months post intervention. SMS intervention on knowledge of sexual and reproductive health for adolescents was accepted and effectively improved the knowledge scores and sustained even after 3 months post intervention. Therefore, the SMS intervention should be implemented as an intervention package to improve knowledge and reduce risk in developing sexual and health related problems among adolescents.


[1]  Ministry of Health (2012) National Adolescent Health Plan of Action 2015-2020. Ministry of Health, Malaysia.
[2]  Azriani, A.R., Razlina, A.R., Mohd, I.I., Halim, S., Shaiful, B.I., et al. (2011) Knowledge of Sexual and Reproductive Health among Adolescents Attending School in Kelantan, Malaysia. The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 42, 717-725.
[3]  Monasterio, E., Hwang, L.Y. and Shafer, M.A. (2007) Adolescent Sexual Health. Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care, 37, 302-325.
[4]  Gavin, L.E., Catalano, R.F. and Markham, C.M. (2010) Positive Youth Development as a Strategy to Promote Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46, S1-S6.
[5]  Ministry of Health (2012) Guidelines on Controlling Sexual and Reproductive Health Problems of Teenagers in Health Clinics (Garis panduan pengendalian masalah kesihatan seksual dan reproduktif remaja di klinik kesihatan). Ministry of Health, Malaysia.
[6]  LPPKN (2013) Cafe @ Teen.
[7]  FRHAM (2013) Adolescents/Young People.
[8]  Levine, D., McCright, J., Dobkin, L., Woodruff, A.J. and Klausner, J.D. (2008) SEXINFO: A Sexual Health Text Messaging Service for San Francisco Youth. American Journal of Public Health, 98, 393-395.
[9]  Lim, M.S.C., et al. (2012) Impact of Text and Email Messaging on the Sexual Health of Young People: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 66, 69-74.
[10]  Kanuga, M. and Rosenfeld, W.D. (2004) Adolescent Sexuality and the Internet: The Good, the Bad, and the URL. Journal of Pediatric & Adolescent Gynecology, 17, 117-124.
[11]  Nhavoto, J.A. and Gronlund, A. (2014) Mobile Technologies and Geographic Information Systems to Improve Health Care Systems: A Literature Review. JMIR mHealth uHealth, 2, e21.
[12]  Lin, H. and Wu, X. (2014) Intervention Strategies for Improving Patient Adherence to Follow-Up in the Era of Mobile Information Technology: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE, 9, e104266.
[13]  Zhang, J. and Mao, E. (2008) Understanding the Acceptance of Mobile SMS Advertising among Young Chinese Consumers. Journal of Psychology and Marketing, 25, 787-805.
[14]  Gold, J., Aitken, C.K., Dixon, H.G., Lim, M.S.C., Gouillou, M., et al. (2011) A Randomised Controlled Trial Using Mobile Advertising to Promote Safer Sex and Sun Safety to Young People. Health Education Research, 26, 782-794.
[15]  Megan, S.C.L., Jane, S.H., Campbell, K.A., Christopher, K.F., Lynne, J., et al. (2011) Impact of Text and Email Messaging on the Sexual Health of Young People: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 66, 69-74.
[16]  Kirsty, B., Thomas, B., David, S., Naomi, S.L., Brian, R., et al. (2014) Efficacy of a Text Messaging (SMS) Based Intervention for Adults with Hypertension: Protocol for the StAR (SMS Text-Message Adherence suppoRT Trial) Randomised Controlled Trial. BMC Public Health, 14, 28.
[17]  Firdaus, U. and Sutan, R. (2014) Knowledge on Sexual and Reproductive Health Adolescents in a College at Seremban, Negeri Sembilan. International Journal of Public Health Research, 4, 500-509.
[18]  Siti, N.Y., Wong, F.P., Rozumah, B., Mariani, M., Rumaya, J., et al. (2010) Factors Related to Sexual Knowledge among Malaysian Adolescents. Jurnal Kemanusiaan, 16, 21-32.
[19]  Stine, L., Vibeke, R., Maryam, H., Ida, M.B., Azzah, S., et al. (2014) Mobile Phone Intervention Reduces Perinatal Mortality in Zanzibar: Secondary Outcomes of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR mHealth uHealth, 2, e15.
[20]  Kamaruddin, I., Roshidah, A.R., Mubin, M.N. and Nurul, A.S. (2010) The Influence of Learning Style on Motivation and Academic Achievement of Pre-Master’s Degree in College of Institute of Teacher Education of Ipoh’s Campus (Pengaruh gaya pembelajaran terhadap motivasi dan pencapaian akademik pelajar pra ijazah sarjana muda perguruan institut pendidikan guru kampus Ipoh). Jurnal Penyelidikan Dedikasi, 2, 141-153.
[21]  Johari, H., Raja, S. and Raja, A. (2012) Increased Internet Usage among Junior High School Students in the Johor Bahru City (Ketagihan penggunaan internet di kalangan remaja sekolah tingkatan 4 di bandaraya johor bahru). Jurnal of Technical Vocational and Engineering Education, 6, 23-43.
[22]  Marlini (2008) Internet Usage in Information Search among Indonesian Students At Malay University (Penggunaan Internet Dalam Pencarian Maklumat Di Kalangan Pelajar-Pelajar Indonesia Di Universiti Malaya). Universiti Malaya Kuala Lumpur.
[23]  Carolyn, G., Rachel, R.H., Gyu, K., Elizabeth, L.K., Lei, Z., et al. (2014) Teenagers and Texting: Use of a Youth Ecological Momentary Assessment System in Trajectory Health Research with Latina Adolescents. JMIR mHealth uHealth, 2, e3.
[24]  Judy, G., Megan, S.C.L., Jane, S., Louise, A.K., Tim, S., et al. (2011) Determining the Impact of Text Messaging for Sexual Health Promotion to Young People. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 38, 247-252.
[25]  Yogeesha, H.C. and Gopala, K.S.G. (2013) Factors Influencing Knowledge Sharing among Undergraduate engineering Students. Research Journal of Science & IT Management, 2, 47-52.
[26]  Nurul, S.R. (2015) Sharing Knowledge for the Constant Development of Professionalism among Teachers (Perkongsian ilmu untuk perkembangan profesionalisme berterusan dalam kalangan guru). Universiti Malaysia Sarawak.
[27]  Rabiatul, A.A.B., Salina, M.R. and Ghazali, M.A. (2014) Culture Sharing Knowledge among Deaf Students: An Exploratory Study (Budaya berkongsi pengetahuan dalam kalangan pelajar pekak: Satu kajian penerokaan). Kolej Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Selangor.
[28]  Sivaporn, W., Kong, C., Ogata, H., Arnseth, H.C., Chan, C.K.K., et al. (2009) Factors Influencing Knowledge Sharing among University Students. Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education, Hong Kong, 800-807.
[29]  Che, G.C.K., Mai, S.A., Arasinah, K., Zaliza, H. and Ridzuan, C.R. (2016) Practical Student Learning Style Styles in Seberang Perai Polytechnic: Malaysian Students Study Based on Felder Silvermen Learning Styles of High Achievers Model at the Seberang Perai Polytechnic (Amalan gaya pembelajaran pelajar cemerlang di Politeknik Seberang Perai: Kajian pelajar Malaysia berdasarkan model Felder Silvermen Learning styles of high achievers at the Seberang Perai Polytechnic). Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, 12, 181-191.
[30]  Raymond, C.W.P., Karen, C.K., Rebecca, A.B., Michelle, C., Bhupendra, S., et al. (2011) Adolescents’ Perspectives on the Use of a Text Messaging Service. Journal of Adolescent Health, 51, 220-225.
[31]  Siti, S.M.M. and Ruzianisra, M. (2012) Sexual Education in Malaysia: Accepted or Rejected? Iranian Journal of Public Health, 41, 34-39.
[32]  Azali, R. (2010) Knowledge and Motivation Factors of Action in the Face of Sexual Problems among Early Adolescents (Pengetahuan dan faktor pendorong tindakan jika menghadapi masalah seksual di kalangan golongan awal remaja). Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
[33]  William, V.B., Zachary, A.V.B., Debby, H., Paula, J.A.H. and Jill, S.H. (2013) Original Study Gynecologic Knowledge Is Low in College Men and Women. Journal of Pediatric & Adolescent Gynecology, 26, 161-166.
[34]  Mudassir, A., Syed, A.S.S., Keivan, A. and Tahir, M.K. (2010) Awareness of School Students on Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and Their Sexual Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Study Conducted in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. BMC Public Health, 10, 47.
[35]  Slawa, R., Jessica, C., Joshua, A.S. and Günther, F. (2017) Impact of a Text-Messaging Program on Adolescent Reproductive Health: A Cluster-Randomized Trial in Ghana. American Journal of Public Health, 107, 298-305.
[36]  Bourne, C., Knight, V., Guy, R., Wand, H., Lu, H., et al. (2011) Short Message Service Reminder Intervention Doubles Sexually Transmitted Infection/HIV Re-Testing Rates among Men Who Have Sex with Men. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 87, 229-231.
[37]  Hyekyun, R., James, A., Jennifer, M. and Mary, S. (2014) Mobile Phone-Based Asthma Self-Management Aid for Adolescents (mASMAA): A Feasibility Study. Patient Preference and Adherence, 8, 63-72.
[38]  Elizabeth, K., Josip, C. and Azeem, M. (2008) Effectiveness of Mobile-Phone Short Message Service (SMS) Reminders for Ophthalmology Outpatient Appointments: Observational Study. BMC Opthalmology, 8, 9.
[39]  Emily, A. (2014) The Use of Internet and Mobile Phone Based Health Promotion Interventions in Youth Populations (Literature Review). Health Promotion Forum of New Zealand.
[40]  Azizi, Y., Nurfaizah, A.M. (2011) The Relationship between Formal School Culture and Student Learning Styles with Academic Achievement of High School Students (Hubungan antara budaya formal sekolah dan gaya pembelajaran pelajar dengan pencapaian akademik pelajar sekolah menengah). Journal of Educational Psychology and Counselling, 2, 78-112.
[41]  Baharin, A., Othman, M.J., Syed, M.S.S.M. and Haliza, J. (2007) The Diversity of Learning Styles and Learning Skills of University Students in the Faculty of Education (Kepelbagaian gaya pembelajaran dan kemahiran belajar pelajar universiti di Fakulti Pendidikan, UTM Johor). Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
[42]  Azizi, Y. and Syazwani, B.A.R. (2011) Theory Relationships in Learning Style and Teaching Methods (Teori Berkaitan Gaya Pembelajaran Dan Kaedah Pengajaran).
[43]  Azizi, Y., Mohd, N.G., Jamaludin, R., Yusof, B., Wan, Z.W.H., et al. (2011) The Relationship between the Learning Style and the Student’s Academic Achievement (Hubungan di antara gaya pembelajaran dengan pencapaian akademik pelajar). Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
[44]  Yusof, B. and Mohd, S.S. (2010) The Reading Culture among 4 SPH Special Programs of Pensiswazahan Guru Students of Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (Budaya membaca dalam kalangan pelajar-pelajar 4 SPH Program Khas Pensiswazahan Guru Universiti Teknologi Malaysia). Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
[45]  Shaharom, T.M.S. and Saiful, F.M.Y. (2011) A Reading Culture Scenario in Malaysia: Issues and Challenges. Presentation at the Perak State Booklet Seminar (Senario budaya membaca di Malaysia: Isu dan Cabaran). Pembentangan di Seminar Pencinta Buku Negeri Perak.
[46]  Tiew, W.S. (2010) Abit and Interest in Reading among Form Four Students at SMK Hulu Kelang, Gombak, Selangor in 2010 (Tabiat dan minat membaca di kalangan pelajar Tingkatan Empat di SMK Hulu Kelang, Gombak, Selangor pada tahun 2010). Journal PPM, 4, 57-75.
[47]  Lesiba, S.M. (2008) An HIV/AIDS Intervention Programme to Change Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviour of Members of the South African Police Service. University of Limpopo.
[48]  Lauren, T.A. (2016) Changes in Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Following a Sexual Health Video Intervention in American Indian/Alaska Native Youth: The Native VOICES Project Following a Sexual Health Video Intervention in VOICES Project. Oregon Health & Science University.
[49]  Azura, I., Zakaria, K., Mohd, H.S. and Bahaman, A.S. (2009) Comparison of Multimedia and Traditional Based Teaching on Mathematical Achievement and Mathematical Attitudes among Risk Students. Perbandingan pengajaran berasaskan multimedia dan tradisional ke atas pencapaian matematik dan sikap matematik di kalangan pelajar berisiko, 5, 79-89.


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


微信:OALib Journal