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Traumatic Acute Subdural Hematoma: Treatment by Evacuation with Decompressive Craniotomy and Cranioplasty, Case Series and Surgical Outcome Analysis

DOI: 10.4236/ojmn.2018.83028, PP. 331-341

Keywords: Acute Subdural Hematoma, Hematoma Evacuation, Decompressive Craniotomy, Cranioplasty

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Abstract:

Background: Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) is considered the most common traumatic brain mass lesion. Its prognosis is still grave despite the improvements in treatment modalities. Its mortality rate was reported to be around 60% until the 1990s. In the last decade, ASDH mortality rate was reduced to the level of 20% - 40%. Standard treatment to decrease intracranial tension via hematoma evacuation is associated with decompressive craniotomy and followed by ICU management. Objective: To evaluate the outcome and prognostic factors in patients of acute subdural hematoma treated by surgical evacuation and decompressive craniotomy. Also, outcome of cranioplasty by repositioning of patients own bone or by synthetic mesh methods is evaluated. Patients and Methods: It is one year retrospective study. It was conducted on 53 patients, in trauma unit, Assiut university hospitals. We report time lag between trauma and performed surgery, initial Glasgow coma scale (GCS), age, sex and presence of other intracranial pathologies. Outcome assessment is based on Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) and fol-low-up extended for 6 months. We include those patients with only (isolated) head trauma, shift of midline more than 5 mm in CT brain. We excluded pa-tients with GCS 3 and fixed dilated pupils as well as patients with GCS higher than 12. We did decompressive craniotomy and duraplasty in all patients. Bone flap of decompressive craniotomy is situated in the abdomen. All func-tionally recovered patients were submitted for cranioplasty with either re-placing patient own bone or by Titanium mesh. Results: We had 39 males and 14 females. Age ranged between 7 and 65 years old. 23 deaths, 10 persis-tent vegetative state, 10 severe disability, 8 moderate disability and 2 good recovery. The outcome analysis was based on 6 month follow-up. Conclu-sion: Acute subdural hematoma is a very serious condition. Mortality and morbidity is intimately related to GCS on admission. Presence of associated cerebral pathology increases mortality and morbidity of patients with post-traumatic acute subdural hematoma. Early evacuation of posttraumatic acute subdural hematoma with decompressive craniotomy is an important method to control raised intracranial tension, reduce shift of midline and very benefi-cial in decreasing mortality and morbidity. Regarding infection and avoiding bone flap resorption, Titanium mesh is better than patient own bone during cranioplasty after patient recovery.

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