All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Focusing Anti-Corruption Efforts More Effectively: An Empirical Look at Offender Motivation—Positive, Classical, Structural and Ethical Approaches

DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2018.86028, PP. 471-485

Keywords: Corruption, Prevention, Ethics, Bribery, Causes of Corruption

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


The level of public corruption cases remains high. Interviews with 72 former investigators, prosecutors, community stakeholders and individuals with first-hand experience in corrupt activities, together with analysis of court documents, offer insight into the motivations behind the corrupt conduct in hundreds of known corruption cases. Corrupt motivations are classified into four categories: positive, classical, structural, and ethical. Empirical examples from interviews and court cases are used to show how the identified causes and correlates of corruption can be grouped and use to develop more effective anti-corruption prevention strategies. Recommendations are offered to reduce the extent of corruption by applying the principles of positive, classical, structural, and ethical explanations of corruption to reduce opportunities for corruption and improve the integrity levels of those in public service.


[1]  Abramoff, J. (2012). Capitol Punishment: The Hard Truth about Washington Corruption from America’s Most Notorious Lobbyist. Washington, D.C.: WND Books.
[2]  Akers, R. L., Sellers, C. S., & Jennings, W. G. (2016). Criminological Theories: Introduction, Evaluation, and Application (7th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[3]  Albanese, J. S. (2016). Professional Ethics: Being Ethical When No One Is Looking (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
[4]  Albanese, J. S., Artello, K., & Nguyen, L. T. (2018). Distinguishing Corruption in Law and Practice: Empirically Separating Conviction Charges from Underlying Behaviors. Public Integrity.
[5]  American National Election Studies (2012). The ANES Guide to Public Opinion and Electoral Behavior. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, Center for Political Studies.
[6]  Arrieta, L. B. (2016). Attacking Bribery at Its Core: Shifting Focus to the Demand Side of the Bribery Equation. Public Contract Law Journal, 45, 587-612.
[7]  Asongu, S. A. (2013). Fighting Corruption in Africa: Do Existing Corruption-Control Levels Matter? International Journal of Development Issues, 12, 36-52.
[8]  Barer, B., Girardot Jr., F. C., & Eurell, K. (2016). Betrayal in Blue. Denver, Colorado: Wild Blue Press.
[9]  Belousova, V., Goel, R. K., & Korhonen, I. (2016). Corruption Perceptions versus Corruption Incidence: Competition for Rents across Russian Regions. Journal of Economics and Finance, 40, 172-187.
[10]  Block, A. A., & Chambliss, W. J. (1981). Organizing Crime. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
[11]  Bullock, K., Clarke, R. V., & Tilley, N. (2010). Situational Prevention of Organised Crimes. Milton Park, Abingdon-on-Thames: Willan Publishing.
[12]  Buscaglia, E., & Dakolias, M. (1999). An Analysis of the Causes of Corruption in the Judiciary. Law and Policy in International Business, 30, 95-116.
[13]  Carte, P., & Fox, C. (2004). Bridging the Culture Gap: A Practical Guide to International Business Communication. London: Kogan Page.
[14]  Carucci, R. (2016). Why Ethical People Make Unethical Choices. Harvard Business Review, December 16.
[15]  Chayes, S. (2015). Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York City, New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
[16]  Cieslik, A., & Goczek, L. (2018). Initial Conditions and Privatisation as Causes of Post-Communist Corruption. Post-Communist Economies, 30, 36-55.
[17]  Cloward, R. A., & Ohlin, L. E. (1960). Delinquency and Opportunity: A Theory of Delinquent Gangs. New York, NY: Free Press.
[18]  d’Agostino, G., Dunne, J. P., & Pieronic, L. (2016). Government Spending, Corruption and Economic Growth. World Development, 84, 190-205.
[19]  De Speville, B. (2016). The Struggle against Corruption: Progress at a Snail’s Pace. Why? Asia-Pacific Review, 23, 115-124.
[20]  Deloitte (2017). Deloitte Bribery and Corruption Survey 2017.
[21]  Eckblom, P. (2003). Organised Crime and the Conjunction of Criminal Opportunity Framework. In A. Edwards, & P. Gill (Eds.), Transnational Organized Crime: Perspectives on Global Security (pp. 242-263). London: Routledge.
[22]  Erickson, M. M., & Hills, R. M. (2007). Research on Corruption and Its Control: The State of the Art. Washington DC: The World Bank.
[23]  Gallup Poll (2010). Trust in Government.
[24]  Glor, E. D., & Greene, I. (2003). The Government of Canada’s Approach to Ethics: The Evolution of Ethical Government. Public Integrity, 5, 39-85.
[25]  Graycar, A., & Prenzler, T. (2013). Understanding and Preventing Corruption. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
[26]  Hake, T. (2015). Operation Greylord. Washington DC: ABA Publishing.
[27]  Hobbs, D. (2013). Lush Life: Constructing Organized Crime in the UK. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[28]  Holmes, L. (2015). Corruption: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[29]  Keith, N., & Campbell, R. (2012). Anticorruption Legislation. Professional Safety, 57, 46-54.
[30]  Lash, N. A., & Bala, B. (2013). Government Economic Intervention and Corruption. Journal of Developing Areas, 47, 1-15.
[31]  Lim, H., & Sloan, J. J. (2016). Police Officer Integrity: A Partial Replication and Extension. Policing: An International Journal, 39, 284-301.
[32]  Matza, D. (1964). Delinquency and Drift. Hoboken: Wiley.
[33]  Moldovan, A., & Van de Walle, S. (2013). Gifts or Bribes? Public Integrity, 15, 385-402.
[34]  Narvaez, D. (2006). Integrative Ethical Education. In M. Killen, & J. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of Moral Development (pp. 703-733). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
[35]  Nucci, L., Narvaez, D., & Krettenauer, T. (2014). Handbook of Moral and Character Education (2d ed.). Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge.
[36]  OECD Convention (1999). OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions.
[37]  OECD, UNODC, & World Bank (2013). Anti-Corruption Ethics and Compliance Handbook for Business.
[38]  Passas, N. (2001). Globalization and Transnational Organized Crime: Effects of Criminogenic Asymmetries. In P. Williams, & D. Vlassis (Eds.), Combating Transna-tional Organized Crime: Concepts, Activities and Responses (pp. 22-56). London: Frank Cass.
[39]  Pisor, A. C., &Gurven, M. (2015). Corruption and the Other(s): Scope of Superordinate Identity Matters for Corruption Permissibility. PLoS ONE, 10, e0144542.
[40]  Reider-Gordon, M. (2011). U.S. and International Anti-Money Laundering Developments. The International Lawyer, 25, 365-379.
[41]  Rose-Ackerman, S., & Palifka, B. J. (2016). Corruption and Government: Causes, Consequences, and Reform (2d ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[42]  Salkin, P., & Ince, B. (2014). It’s a “CrimingChame”: Moving from Land Use Ethics to Criminalization of Behavior Leading to Permits and Other Zoning Related Acts. Urban Lawyer, 46, 249-267.
[43]  Sung, H. (2004). State Failure, Economic Failure, and Predatory Organized Crime: A Comparative Analysis. Journal of Research in Crime & Delinquency, 41, 111-129.
[44]  Sutherland, E. H. (1939). Principles of Criminology. New York, NY: Lippincott.
[45]  Tanzler, D., Konstadinos, M., & Giannakouplos, A. (2016). The Social Construction of Corruption in Europe. Hoboken: Routledge.
[46]  Transparency International (2011). Bribe Payers Index 1999-2011.
[47]  Transparency International (2017). Corruption Perceptions Index 2016.
[48]  United Nations Convention on Corruption (2005).
[49]  White, R. (2013). What Counts as Corruption? Social Research, 80, 1033-1056.
[50]  Williams III, F. P., & McShane, M. D. (2017). Criminological Theory (7th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson.
[51]  World Bank (1997). Helping Countries Combat Corruption: The Role of the World Bank.
[52]  York, G. (2014). Corruption behind Bars: Stories of Crime and Corruption in Our American Prison System. London: Independent.
[53]  Zabyelina, Y. (2014). The “Fishy” Business: A Qualitative Analysis of the Illicit Market in Black Caviar. Trends in Organized Crime, 17, 181-198.


comments powered by Disqus