All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


Prevalence of Organophosphorous Pesticide Residues in Pumpkin, Spinach and Sorrel Leaves Grown in Akwanga, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

DOI: 10.4236/jep.2018.95032, PP. 516-524

Keywords: Akwanga, Pesticide Residues, Organophosphorous, Maximum Residue Limit

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Three green leafy vegetable samples of pumpkin leaves, spinach leaves, and sorrel leaves were collected from three different locations in a farm in Akwanga and were tested for the presence of organophosphorus (OP) compounds. The concentrations of all the pesticide residues in the vegetable samples were determined using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The organophosphorus pesticides detected include carbaryl (0.052 mg/kg) in pumpkin, this is below European maximum residues limit (EU MRL) of 0.1 mg/kg, Dimethoate was found in pumpkin (0.165 mg/kg), spinach (0.103 mg/kg) and sorrel (0.250 mg/kg) all above the EU MRL of 0.05 mg/kg. Dichlofenthion was detected in pumpkin (0.308 mg/kg), pirimiphos methyl was detected in pumpkin and spinach (0.428 mg/kg and 0.149 mg/kg respectively), all these were below the EU MRL of 0.5 mg/kg. Chlorpyrifos was found in spinach (0.230 mg/kg) and sorrel (0.192 mg/kg) only spinach was above the EU MRL of 0.2 mg/kg. The pesticide residue Bromophosethyl was detected in all vegetables, pumpkin leaves (0.501 mg/kg), sorrel (1.571 mg/kg) and spinach (7.981 mg/kg) all above the EU MRL of 0.5 mg/kg. The remaining pesticides detected were all below their EU MRL value; these are Ethion found in spinach (0.167 mg/kg), Methyl Parathion in spinach (0.103 mg/kg) and sorrel (0.335 mg/kg). The levels of some of the organophosphorus pesticide residues found in vegetables were above the maximum residue limits (MRLs) set by the European Union. This calls for laws to regulate the use and circulation of such chemicals. Based on the observation made in these studies, it is proposed that more extensive monitoring investigation covering all vegetables part in Akwanga Nasarawa state be carried out to find the exact position of pesticide residues.

References

[1]  Akpagu, F.C., Nnamani, E.V. and Eze Chuckwuebuka, G.I. (2015) Analysis of Organophosphate Pesticides Residue on Crops in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC), 8.
[2]  Wang, J.-L., Xia, Q., Zhang, A.-P., Hu, X.Y. and Lin, C.M. (2012) Determination of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Vegetables by an Enzymes Inhibition Method Using α-Naphthyl ac-Etate Esterase Extracted from Wheat Flour. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B (Biomedicine & Biotechnology).
[3]  Darko, G. and Akoto, O. (2008) Dietary Intake of Organophosphorus Pesticides Residues through Vegetables from Kumasi Ghana. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46, 3703-3706.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2008.09.049
[4]  Desilva, H.J., Samarawickrema, N.A. and Wickremasinghe, A.R. (2006) Toxicity Due to Organophosphhorus Compounds, What about Chronic Exposure. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 100, 803-806.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trstmh.2006.05.001
[5]  Uygun, U., Ozkara, R., Ozbey, A. and Kolisel, H. (2007) Residue Levels of Malathion and Fenitrothion and Their Metabolites in Post Harvest Treated Barley during Storage and Malting. Food Chemistry, 100, 1165-1169.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.10.063
[6]  Zhao, J.H. and Zhao, D.G. (2009) Transient Expression of Organophosphorus Hydrolase to Enhance the Degrading Activity of Tomato Fruit on Coumaphos. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B (Biomedicine & Biotechnology), 10, 1165-1169.
[7]  Akpagu, F.C., Nnamani, E. and Eze Chukwuebuka, G.I. (2015) Analysis of Organophosphate Pesticides Residue on Crops in Abakaliki, Ebonyi State. Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR), 8, 26-29.
[8]  Chen, J., Duan, C. and Guan, Y. (2010) Sorptive Extraction Techniques in Sample Preparation for Organophosphorus Pesticides in Complex Matrices. Journal of Chromatography B, 878, 1210-1225.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2010.02.031
[9]  Sapahin, H.A., Ahmad, M. and Bahruddin, S. (2015) Determination of Organophosphorus Pesticides Residue in Vegetables Using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography-Flame Photometric Detectors. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 2-9.
[10]  Ibitomi, M., Oluwarotimi, C. and Mohammed, F. (2016) Determination of Pesticides Residues in Fruits and Vegetables in Kaduna Metropolis, Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Science and Toxicology Research, 4, 185-189.
[11]  Zahir, E., Naqvi, I.I. and Uddin, M.S. (2009) Market Basket Survey of Selected Metals in Fruits from Kara-Chi City (Pakistan). Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5, 47-52.
[12]  Yakubu, N. (2015) Prevalence of Organochlorines and Organophosphorus Pesticides in Vegetables Grown in Akwanga, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State.
[13]  Bhanti, M. and Taneja, A. (2007) Contamination of Vegetables of Different Seasons with Organ Phosphorus Pesticides and Related Health Assessment in Northern India. Chemosphere, 69, 63-68.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.04.071
[14]  Bhanti, M. and Taneja, A. (2005) Monitoring of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Summer and Winter Vegetables from Agra, India—A Case Study. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 100, 341-346.
[15]  Zawiyah, S., CheMan, Y.B., Nazimah, S.A.H., Chin, C.K., Tsukamoto, I., Hamanyza, A.H. and Norhainzan, I. (2007) Determination of Organochlorine and Pyrethroid Pesticides in Fruit and Vegetables using SAX/PSA Clean-Up Column. Food Chemistry, 102, 98-103.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.05.003
[16]  WHO (2003) GEMS/Food Regional Diets (Regional per Capita Consumption of Raw and Semi-Processed Agricultural Commodities).
http://www.who.int/foodsafety/pub-lications/chem/regional-diets/en/
[17]  Juraske, R., Mutel, C., Stoessel F. and Hellweg, S. (2009) Life Cycle Human Toxicity Assessment of Pesticides: Comparing Fruit and Vegetable Diets in Switzerland and the United States. Chemosphere, 77, 939-945.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.08.006
[18]  Claeys, W.L., Jean-Francois, S., Bragard, C., Maghuin-Rogister, G., Luc, P. and Sciffers, B. (2011) Exposure of Several Belgain Consumer Groups to Pesticide Residues through Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Consumption. Food Control, 22, 508-516.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2010.09.037
[19]  Kumari, B., Kumar, R., Madan, V.K., Singh, R., Singh, J. and Kathpal, T.S. (2002) Magnitude of Pesticidal Contamination in Winter Vegetables from Hisar, Haryana. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 87, 311-318.
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024869505573
[20]  National Bureau of Statistics (2006) Nigeria National Population Commission (Census) Report 1.
[21]  Akan, J.C., Lafiya, L., Mohammed, Z. and Abdulrahman, F.I. (2013) Organophosphorus Pesticides Residues in Vegetables and Soil Samples from Alam Dam and Gongulong Agricultural Area, Borno State, Nigeria. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis, 1, 58-64.
https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijema.20130102.14
[22]  Bempah, C.K., Donkor, A.K., Yeboah, P.O., Dubey, B. and Osei-Fosu, P. (2011) A Preliminary Assessment of Consumer’s Exposure to Organochlorine Pesticides in Fruits and Vegetables and the Potential Health Risk in Accra Metropolis, Ghana. Food Chemistry, 128, 1058-1065.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.04.013
[23]  Kumari, B., Kumar, R., Madan, V.K., Singh, R., Singh, J.J. and Kathpal, T.S. (2003) Magnitude of Pesticide Contamination in Winter Vegetables from Hissar, Haryana. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 87, 311-318.
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024869505573

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us

service@oalib.com

QQ:3279437679

微信:OALib Journal