All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


Managing the Urban Environment of Lima, Peru

DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2018.83014, PP. 233-284

Keywords: Urban Environmental Management, Regional Planning, Developing Countries, Metropolitan Lima

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

This article brings the contemporary thinking and practice of Urban Environmental Management (UEM) to the solution of real problems in a major city of a developing country in Latin America. Such cities both face more immediate problems than the developed world and have fewer resources to deal with them. The study first considers the Latin American context and then reviews issues of poverty alleviation, industry, sewage and sanitation, water, energy, transportation and finance in Lima, Peru. Finally, it proposes a 5-year plan to help solve the urban environmental problems of Metropolitan Lima, an environmentally difficult, but important Latin American metropolitan area located between the Pacific Ocean and a hilly desert, utilizing a real-world database and a limited budget.

References

[1]  ABOD (n. d.). ABOD Shelters Solution.
http://www.abodshelters.com/solution/
[2]  ABOD Official Website (2017). ABOD Simple Design.
[3]  About Grand Challenges Canada (2017). Grand Challenges Canada.
http://www.grandchallenges.ca/who-we-are/
[4]  ACCION International (2007). A Comparison of Housing Finance Programs for Low Income People in Peru. Peru Case Study for Cities Alliance.
https://www.microfinancegateway.org/sites/default/files/mfg-en-case-study-a-compari
son-of-housing-finance-programs-for-low-income-people-in-peru-may-2007.pdf
[5]  Alcazar, L., Xu, C., & Zuluaga, A. (2000). Institutions, Politics, and Contracts, the Attempts to Privatize Water and Sanitation Utility of Lima, Peru. World Bank.
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/907981468774890395/pdf/multi-page.pdf
[6]  Arana, M. (2013). Opinion: The Peru Kids Left Behind by the Boom.
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/21/opinion/arana-the-kids-left-behind-by-the-boom.html
[7]  Barbier, C. (2012). Lima’s Urgent Priority Is to Reform Public Transport. The Guardian.
https://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/sep/11/lima-peru-public-transport-reform
[8]  Black, G. (2010). The Real Price of Water: The Future’s Rare Resource. Karikuy.
http://www.karikuy.org/blog/2010/12/12/the-real-price-of-water-the-futures-rare-resource/
[9]  Bonzangio, L., Kalra, N., Groves, D., & Brandon (2015). Ensuring Robust Water Management Strategies in Lima-Callao, Peru. The Water Blog.
[10]  Cass Community Social Services (2017). Tiny Homes.
https://casscommunity.org/tinyhomes/
[11]  Chauvin, L. (2009). Peru’s Scavengers Turn Professional.
http://content.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1878475,00.html
[12]  CINYDE (2011). Assessment of the Peruvian Market for Sustainable Energy Finance.
http://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/78f59b00493a76e18cc0ac849537832d/SEF-Market+
Assessment+Peru-Final+Report.pdf?MOD=AJPERES
[13]  Ciudad Saludable (2011). Ciudad Saludable: Video Institucional.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W4ZC-487M_c
[14]  Ciudad Saludable (2015). Colabora con los recicladores y recicladoras del Perú.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AasSZVLWgUQ
[15]  Collyns, D. (2015). Farmer Waters Crops with Hose. [Photograph]
https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2012/sep/19/peru-fog-catchers-water-supplies
[16]  Conrad, N. (2012). Peru Battles to Bring Water to a dry Capital. Deutsche Welle.
http://www.dw.com/en/peru-battles-to-bring-water-to-a-dry-capital/a-16453103
[17]  Corporate Vattenfall (2016). The Biomass Plant and How it Works.
https://corporate.vattenfall.com/about-energy/renewable-energy-sources/biomass/how-it-works/
[18]  Countries - Peru - Our Action. (n. d.).
https://www.caf.com/en/countries/peru/our-action/
[19]  Dazzle Prints (2017).
https://www.dazzleprinting.com/online-printing/booklet-printing/?gclid=CjwKCAjwssvPBRBB
EiwASFoVd6y4dqjeV7sh0FjRdC8HhkLbFmYP3-B6xvVQRSip5ZjJ1dmgCIVpLhoC4
LcQAvD_BwE
[20]  Distribution in Peru (2015).
https://www.enelamericas.com/en/aboutus/a201609-distribution-in-peru.html
[21]  Edelman, D. J. (2014). Managing the Urban Environment - Mysore, India. Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.
[22]  Edelman, D. J. (2015). Managing the Urban Environment - Lagos, Nigeria. Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.
[23]  Edelman, D. J. (2016). Managing the Urban Environment - Manila, the Philippines. Saarbrücken: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing.
[24]  Edelman, D. J., Schuster, M., & Said, J. (2017). Urban Environmental Management in Latin America, 1970-2017. Current Urban Studies, 5, 305-331.
https://doi.org/10.4236/cus.2017.53017
[25]  El Espectador (2017). El futuro de los recicladores en Bogotá. El Espectador.
https://www.elespectador.com/noticias/bogota/el-futuro-de-los-recicladores-en-bogota-articulo-682513
[26]  Emery, A. (2017). Peru to Build 1290 Water Projects in 2017. BN Americas.
http://www.bnamericas.com/en/news/waterandwaste/peru-to-build-1290-water-projects-in-2017
[27]  Enel Starts Construction of Peru’s Largest Solar PV Plant (2017). Enelgreenpower.com.
https://www.enelgreenpower.com/media/press/d/2016/11/enel-starts-construction-of-
perus-largest-solar-pv-plant-
[28]  Export.gov (2017). Leading Sectors for U.S. Export & Investment. Peru - Water Resources.
https://www.export.gov/article?id=Peru-Water-Resources
[29]  Fernández, R. (2000). Gestión ambiental de ciudades: Teoría crítica y aportes metológicos. México: Programa de las Naciones Unides para el Medio Ambiente.
[30]  Fernández-Maldonado, A. M., & Bredenoord, J. (2010). Progressive Housing Approaches in the Current Peruvian Policies. Habitat International, 34, 342-350.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2009.11.018
[31]  Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (2015). Urban and Periurban Agriculture in Latin America and the Caribbean: Lima.
http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/greenercities/en/ggclac/lima.html
[32]  Foreign Direct Investment (n. d.).
http://www.investinperu.pe/modulos/JER/PlantillaStandard.aspx?are=1&prf=0&jer=6037&sec=17
[33]  Fretes-Cibils, V., Giugale, M., & Newman, J. L. (2007). An Opportunity for a Different Peru: Prosperous, Equitable, and Governable. Washington DC: World Bank.
https://doi.org/10.1596/978-0-8213-6862-6
[34]  Graf, J., & Kayser, O. (2014). Designing the Next Generation of Sanitation Business (pp. 80-84). HYSTRA Hybrid Strategy Consulting.
http://www.toiletboard.org/media/10-27-Designing.pdf
[35]  IDB (2012). Housing Deficit in Latin America and Caribbean.
http://www.iadb.org/en/news/news-releases/2012-05-14/housing-deficit-in-latin-america-
and-caribbean,9978.html
[36]  Important Facts and Figures about Lima, the Capital of the Republic of Peru.
http://www.limaeasy.com/lima-info/important-facts-and-figures-about-lima
[37]  Intelligence Series: The Perils of Plenty in Peru’s Electricity Sector (2017). Bnamericas.com.
https://www.bnamericas.com/en/intelligence-series/electricpower/the-perils-of-plenty-in-
perus-electricity-sector/
[38]  Jewell, N. (2014). Revolutionary Water Wheel Helps Women Transport Water More Efficiently in India. Inhabitat.
https://inhabitat.com/revolutionary-waterwheel-helps-women-transport-water-more-efficiently-in-india/
[39]  Kalra, N., Groves, D., Bonzanigo, L., Molina Perez, E., Ramos, C., Brandon, C., & Rodriguez Cabanillas, I. (2015). Republic of Peru Robust Decision-Making in the Water Sector a Strategy for Implementing Lima’s Long-Term Water Resources Master Plan. The World Bank, 9.
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/907711468144901879/pdf/AUS3381-REVISED-
PUBLIC-SEDAPAL-Report-2015-10-06.pdf
https://doi.org/10.1596/1813-9450-7439
[40]  Lavars, N. (2014). Waterwheel Aims to Lighten the Load For Women in Developing Nations. New Atlas.
https://newatlas.com/wello-waterwheel-water-transport/30325/
[41]  Lima Traffic Pattern, 2017.
[42]  Lineback, N., & Gritzner, M. L. (2010). Peru’s Water Running Out.
https://www.birdvilleschools.net/cms/lib/TX01000797/Centricity/Domain/3064/Peru%20Water
%20Running%20Out.pdf
[43]  Livezey, E. T. (1980). “Hazardous Waste”. Christian Science Monitor.
https://www.csmonitor.com/1980/1106/110653.html
[44]  Mahapatra, S., & Mahapatra, S. (2017). Enel Commissions Largest Solar Project in South America|CleanTechnica.
https://cleantechnica.com/2017/09/25/enel-commissions-largest-solar-project-south-america/
[45]  McDonough, W., & Braungart, M. (2002). Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things. New York: North Point Press.
[46]  McGrath, M. (2014). Man Riding Back of Water Truck. [Photograph]
http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-30390041
[47]  Mervin, J. (2015). In Peru Water is a High Price for Lima’s Poor. BBC News.
http://www.bbc.com/news/business-34451418
[48]  Ministerio de Energía y Minas República del Perú (MEM Perú) (2017).
https://www.bnamericas.com/company-profile/en/ministerio-de-energia-y-minas-republica-
del-peru-mem-peru
[49]  Miranda, S., Calderón, L. J., & Díaz Palacios, J. (1996). La situación de la gestión urbana ambiental en el Péru. In L. Miranda Sara, (Ed.). Ciudades para la Vida: Experiences exitoses y propuestas para la acción, PGU Serie Gestión Urbana No. 6. Lima: United Nations.
[50]  Miriam Vale Shire Council (2007). Engineering Estimates and Financial Implication of Pipeline and Desalination Options for Agnes Water and 1770.
http://www.gladstone.qld.gov.au/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=6a16fd7e-9c70-4b73-9cb6-
8360dfa5e123&groupId=1570002
[51]  Municipalidad Metropolitana de Lima (2013). Solid Waste Management in the City of Lima Peru.
http://www.waste.ccacoalition.org/sites/default/files/files/events_documents/RESIDUOS%20
LIMA%20-%20ENGLISH.pdf
[52]  National Environmental Policy Act (1969). National Environmental Policy Act.
https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/whitehouse.gov/files/ceq/NEPA_full_text.pdf
[53]  Organismo de Evaluación y Fiscalización Ambiental (2014) Environmental Enforcement in Solid Waste.
https://www.oefa.gob.pe/?wpfb_dl=11827
[54]  Ortegon-Sanchez, A., & Hernandez, D. O. (2016). Assessment of the Potential for Modal Shift to Non-Motorised Transport in a Developing Context: Case of Lima, Peru. Research in Transportation Economics, 60, 3-13.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.retrec.2016.05.010
[55]  Pacala, S., & Socolow, R. (2004). Stabilization Wedges: Solving the Climate Problem for the Next 50 Years with Current Technologies. Science, 305, 968-972.
https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1100103
[56]  Painter, J. (2007). Peru’s Alarming Water Truth. BBC.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6412351.stm
[57]  Peru and the IDB (n. d.).
http://www.iadb.org/en/countries/peru/peru-and-the-idb,1037.html
[58]  Peru Economy - GDP, Inflation, CPI and Interest Rate (2017).
https://www.focus-economics.com/countries/peru
[59]  Peru Total Gross External Debt Forecast (n. d.).
https://tradingeconomics.com/peru/external-debt/forecast
[60]  Peru: Farming Sector Sees Best Growth in 2 Years (2017).
http://www.andina.com.pe/Ingles/noticia-peru-farming-sector-sees-best-growth-in-2-
years-678986.aspx
[61]  Peru’s Energy Future (2017). International Rivers.
https://www.internationalrivers.org/blogs/233/peru-s-energy-future
[62]  Peru’s Fishing Industry likely to Expand 40% This Year (2017).
http://www.andina.com.pe/ingles/noticia-perus-fishing-industry-likely-to-expand-40-this-
year-654275.aspx
[63]  Peru’s Stance on Paris Agreement and Climate Change|Noticias|Agencia Andina (2017). Andi-na.com.pe.
http://www.andina.com.pe/ingles/noticia-perus-stance-on-paris-agreement-and-climate-
change-669391.aspx
[64]  Poon, L. (2016). The Garbage Fighting Vultures of Peru. The Atlantic.
https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2016/01/peru-vultures-garbage/431709/
[65]  Quistberg, D. A., Koepsell, T. D., Johnston, B. D., Boyle, L. N., Miranda, J. J., & Ebel, B. E. (2015). Bus Stops and Pedestrian-Motor Vehicle Collisions in Lima, Peru: A Matched Case-Control Study. Injury Prevention, 21, E15-E22.
https://doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2013-041023
[66]  Radelet, S. (2006). A Primer on Foreign Aid.
https://www.cgdev.org/
[67]  Robinson, D. J. (2016). Lima.
https://www.britannica.com/place/Lima
[68]  Roman, A., Winker, M., Tettenborn, F., & Otterpohl, R. (2007). Informal Settlements and Wastewater Reuse: Improve of Urban Environment and Alleviate Poverty in Lima, Peru.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228613769_Informal_Settlements_and_Wastewater_
Reuse_Improve_of_Urban_Environment_and_Alleviate_Poverty_in_Lima_Peru
[69]  Schneider, K. (2014). Growth in Lima, Peru’s Capital, Served without Water. Circle of Blue.
http://www.circleofblue.org/2014/world/growth-lima-perus-capital-served-without-water/?
utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=growth-lima-perus-capital-served
-without-water
[70]  Seguimiento de la Ejecución Presupuestal (Consulta Amigable) (n. d.).
https://www.mef.gob.pe/es/?option=com_content&view=article&id=504&Itemid=100944
[71]  Skinner, L. (2017). Personal Communication. E-mail.
[72]  Staff, I. (2015). Foreign Direct Investment - FDI.
https://www.investopedia.com/terms/f/fdi.asp
[73]  Tedagua (2014). Taboada WWTP (Lima, Peru) South America’s Largest Wastewater Treatment Plant.
[74]  Tejerina, Alfonso (2015). Power in Peru.
http://www.powermag.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Peru-Power_2014_v6-web-RES.pdf
[75]  The Many Benefits of Drip Irrigation (2017).
https://www.dripdepot.com/article/benefits-of-drip-irrigation
[76]  The World Bank (1991). Lima Water Supply and Sewerage Project-Project Completion Report.
[77]  The World Bank Group’s Peru Portfolio and Climate Change (2015).
http://www.bing.com/cr?IG=38EF0A0EEF7D466B8B5C4DAB7FFBE064&CID=2F6B259E8BD8657
930F52ECF8A776411&rd=1&h=YUfQ2-5VrZ27DVxXoudeABhQezVKlXqtTJmJHnXJYX
o&v=1&r=http%3a%2f%2fwww.bankinformationcenter.org%2fwp-content%2fu
ploads%2f2015%2f08%2fPeru-Climate-Change-full.pdf&p=DevEx,5068.1
[78]  The World Bank in Peru (2017).
http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/peru
[79]  Trading Economics (Database) (2017).
https://tradingeconomics.com/
[80]  UN Habitat (2005). Financing Urban Shelter: Global Report on Human Settlements 2005. London: Earthscan and UN Habitat.
[81]  UN Habitat (2008). The Human Settlements Finance Systems Series. In X. Q. Zhang, (Ed.), Housing Finance Mechanism in Peru. Translated by Osanjo. Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Human Settlement Programme.
[82]  United Nations (2014). In Peru, Where Evidence of Climate Change Is Abundant, Hope for a Solu-tion Is, Too - UN and Climate Change.
http://www.un.org/climatechange/blog/2014/11/peru-evidence-climate-change-abundant-hope-solution/
[83]  Urban Conceptual Authority 129, accessed 21 October 2017.
[84]  Wello Water Wheel (2017).
https://Wellowater.org/
[85]  WHO (World Health Organization) (2013). Lima’s Trash and Health Link.
http://www.who.int/en/
[86]  World Atlas: Lima Population (2013). Knoema.
https://knoema.com/atlas/Peru/Lima/topics/Demography/Age-Structure/Population-0-14-Years
[87]  World Bank (2007). Análisis Ambiental del Perú, Retos para un Desarrollo Sostenible.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTPERUINSPANISH/Resources/Res_Ejec_CEA_FINAL.pdf
[88]  World Justice Project (2017). Promoting Access to Sustainable Transport in Lima Through the Use of Bicycles as Means of Transport.
https://worldjusticeproject.org/our-work/programs/promoting-access-sustainable-transport-
lima-through-use-bicycles-means-transport
[89]  Yachiyo Engineering (2005). The Master Plan for Lima and Callao Metropolitan Area Urban Transportation in the Republic of Peru (Phase 1). Volume 1, accessed 17 November 2017.

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus