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The Significance of Solutions Obtained from Ill-Posed Systems of Linear Equations Constituted by Synchrotron Radiation Based Anomalous Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering

DOI: 10.4236/alamt.2018.81007, PP. 64-86

Keywords: Matrix Inversion, Condition Numbers, LU-Decomposition, Gaussian Elimination, Synchrotron Radiation, Anomalous Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering

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Abstract:

Synchrotron radiation based experimental techniques known as Anomalous Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (ASAXS) provide deep insight into the nanostructure of uncountable material systems in condensed matter research i.e. solid state physics, chemistry, engineering and life sciences thereby rendering the origin of the macroscopic functionalization of the various materials via correlation to its structural architecture on a nanometer length scale. The techniques constitute a system of linear equations, which can be treated by matrix theory. The study aims to analyze the significance of the solutions of the stated matrix equations by use of the so-called condition numbers first introduced by A. Turing, J. von Neumann and H. Goldstine. Special attention was given for the comparison with direct methods i.e. the Gaussian elimination method. The mathematical roots of ill-posed ASAXS equations preventing matrix inversion have been identified. In the framework of the theory of von Neumann and Goldstine the inversion of certain matrices constituted by ASAXS gradually becomes impossible caused by non-definiteness. In Turing’s theory which starts from more general prerequisites, the principal minors of the same matrices approach singularity thereby imposing large errors on inversion. In conclusion both theories recommend for extremely ill-posed ASAXS problems avoiding inversion and the use of direct methods for instance Gaussian elimination.

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